Pumpkin pie, pumpkin pudding, pumpkin bread, and the ever-popular Halloween jack-o-lantern are all autumn favorites. But, did you know that most canned pumpkin puree is actually squash?
Being members of the squash family (Cucurbita), pumpkins and other winter squash share enough characteristics as to be indistinguishable according to the FDA. Huh. How about that? So much for truth in advertising. No matter. Growing pumpkins is rewarding and not nearly as difficult as you may think.
The story of pumpkins
Pumpkins are native to North America. Early Native Americans grew pumpkins along with maize and beans in the Three Sisters Method. This sustainable gardening method combines the nitrogen-fixing ability of beans with the climbable maize (or corn), and the soil protecting, weed preventing shade provided by broad squash leaves. Ripened pumpkins were roasted over fires, baked in dirt ovens, parched, and boiled. They dried pumpkin flesh and used it as flour, and dried the outer shells to be used as containers. Pumpkin blossoms were added to soups and stews, and any seeds that were not saved for the next year’s crop were roasted for as tasty snack. I don’t see any reason why we shouldn’t be using this durable and attractive plant in the same ways in our own gardens.
How to grow pumpkins
Pumpkins are now grown everywhere except Antarctica, as human and livestock food, and for use as autumn decorations. Now, I love seeing those round orange signs of a good harvest on porches and patios, but it kills me to see them tossed to the curb, many of them never even opened. What a waste! Unopened pumpkins can always be donated to local food banks, if nothing else. Personally, I put my pumpkins to work for my own family. The easiest way possible, is to simply let nature take its course. You can put a pumpkin in a suitable location to go through all the natural cycles and just leave it alone.
If you prefer a more focused effort, you will need seeds. It can start with a store bought packet, seeds from a friend’s pumpkin, or your own current pumpkin. Jack-o-lantern or not, I will eventually cut into my pumpkins. I can put this off for quite a while because pumpkins and other winter squashes, such as butternut, have one heck of a shelf life, if they are cured correctly. We’ll get to that in a minute.
Cutting open the pumpkin, you will find a treasure trove of seeds inside. I remove the seeds and separate them from the stringy threads that nourished them (my chickens love that stringy stuff!). I choose the fattest, firmest seeds for next year’s crop, placing them inside a folded towel to allow for air flow without sun exposure, until they dry. The rest are soaked in a brine and roasted for a family favorite.
After temperatures have reached a steady 70ºF, those saved seeds are planted in hills, or mounds, of loose soil amended with aged compost or manure. The hills improve drainage and the soil warms more quickly. Pumpkins are very heavy feeders and their seeds are temperature sensitive. Each pumpkin plant can take up to 50-100 square feet, given the opportunity. You can also redirect vines along walkways, lawns, or fences. Plant 4 or 5 seeds 1” deep in each hill. If you have room for multiple hills, they should be spaced 4 to 8 feet apart. After your seedlings are 2 or 3 inches tall, select the best 2 or 3 for each hill and snip the rejects off at soil level. This causes the least amount of disturbance to young roots and important soil microorganisms. If you are growing pumpkins in rows, rather than hills, seeds should be planted 6 to 12 inches apart in rows that are 6 to 10 feet apart, thinning seedlings to one plant every 18 to 36 inches.
Caring for pumpkin plants
It takes a lot of water to make a pumpkin. During fruit set, each pumpkin plant should receive approximately one inch of water per week. (One inch of water is equal to 0.623 gallons per square foot.) When watering, try to avoid getting the leaves wet, as this can promote fungal diseases. Mulching around pumpkin plants will help conserve water, stabilize temperatures, and reduce competition with weeds. Since pumpkins are shallow-rooted, it is not a good idea to disturb the soil. If you only have a small space, pumpkins can be trained up a trellis. Depending on the size of the fruit, you may need to provide hammocks as support.
How to hand pollinate pumpkins
One common problem with pumpkins is insufficient pollination. You can pollinate your pumpkins by hand for a bigger crop. To hand pollinate, you must first learn the difference between male and female flowers. It’s not hard. Male flowers tend to open earlier in the growing season and they feature a stalk that emerges from the center of the flower called the anther. If you touch the anther and your finger comes away dusted in yellow, it is ready to use for hand pollinating. Simply cut the male flower off and remove the petals to create a “paintbrush of pollen”. Female flowers contain an ovary, which looks like a small ball at the base, outside of the petals. Male flowers do not have this structure. Once female flowers begin to open, simply use the anther paintbrushes to apply pollen to the nubby bits (stigmas) in the center of the female flower. If pollination is successful, the ovary and the base of the flower will begin to swell, ultimately becoming a mature pumpkin.
Pumpkin pests & diseases
The most common problem I have had with pumpkins are powdery and downy mildews, with an occasional bout of blossom end rot. Weeks will go by and the leaves will stay bright green and healthy and then, it seems suddenly, the leaves are covered with fuzzy white and gray areas, top and bottom, and production slows to a near halt. Pumpkins are susceptible to other fungal diseases, such as Verticillium wilt, root rot, damping off, and curly top, but I have not experienced any of those in my garden. Many insect pests also enjoy pumpkins. Crickets, earwigs, several types of beetles, stinkbugs, wireworms, whiteflies, thrips, nematodes, armyworms, spider mites, aphids, and, of, course, slugs and snails. Looking at this list, it’s a wonder that pumpkins grow at all, but grow they do!
Pumpkins are ready to harvest when the shell is firm and the stem is shriveled. After removing the fruit from the vine, allow it to dry, or cure, for a couple of weeks in a location with plenty of airflow and cool temperatures. Garages work nicely. After your pumpkin has cured, it will remain edible for several months.
Give pumpkins a try in your garden!
Your Caesar salad wouldn’t be the same without Romaine lettuce and this nutritional powerhouse should be part of every garden.
You can grow Romaine on a windowsill, in a container, on a balcony, in a traditional garden or sprinkle it around your landscape. Wherever and however you grow Romaine, you’ll be glad you did.
Romaine is high in folate, which has been shown to boost male fertility and reduce depression for everyone. The CDC ranks Romaine as the 9th healthiest food you can eat to prevent chronic disease. Hey, and it tastes pretty good on a burger, too!
How to grow Romaine lettuce
Plant Romaine seeds 1/2 inch deep and several inches apart (just picture how large a head of Romaine gets). Water thoroughly at first and then as needed to prevent wilting. One cool thing about Romaine is that you can regrow a head from the stem at the base of the head. Simply place it in a container that can hold 1/2 inch of water, Pyrex baking pans work well and you can always find them at a thrift store for practically nothing. You will need to change out the water every day, but then you can use that water on houseplants, the lawn, or anywhere in the landscape. Once roots develop, move your lettuce into soil for the best growth. To harvest, simply break off outer leaves as you need them, or cut the whole head off and restart the base in water all over again. Just don't start with a grocery store head of Romaine. Grocery store produce is (usually) safe to eat, but that does not mean it is safe to plant. It may be carrying pests or diseases that can take decades to eradicate from your garden.
Earwigs, cutworms, rabbits, and uncaged chickens can cause problems in your Romaine patch.
Planting your Romaine near garlic and chives is said to reduce aphids, but I don't know if that's true or not.
What summer picnic would be complete without the tang of rhubarb pie?
While purists may enjoy their rhubarb raw, dipped lightly in sugar, many of us prefer rhubarb pie with luscious strawberries. However you eat rhubarb, it is a sturdy perennial that can provide shape, color, and food in a garden or landscape for decades. These plants can get pretty big, making rhubarb excellent anchor plants in a foodscape.
Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is generally a cool season plant. It needs temperatures below 40ºF in the winter and prefers temperatures below 75ºF in the summer. That being said, I have had excellent success with rhubarb in San Jose (CA) where our peak summer heat can reach above 100°F.
You may be surprised to learn that rhubarb is related to buckwheat. If you look at the seeds, you can see the similarity. Rhubarb is believed to have started in Asia, some 5,000 years ago. Marco Polo is cited as the one who brought it to Europe and Benjamin Franklin carried rhubarb to North America, way back in the 1700s!
How to grow rhubarb
When selecting a site for rhubarb, keep the plant’s mature size in mind. Rhubarb plants can reach 3’ in height and 4’ in diameter. Rhubarb generally prefers full sunlight, but mine are under a small apricot tree (which probably protects the rhubarb from our summer heat). In temperate regions, the rhubarb harvest begins in April and continues until September.
Individual plants will be productive for 8-20 years, but, since they grow from rhizomes, the plants will replace themselves over time. [Side note: my mother purchased a 200-year old farm house in Upstate New York many years ago and decided to plant rhubarb along the southern side of an outbuilding. Apparently, the original owners felt the same way because, come spring, not only did the new plants come up, but so did the offspring of the original plants! Needless to say, Mom had plenty of rhubarb!]
Rhubarb can be grown in large containers, as long as there is enough room for a season’s growth. Rhubarb will do much better in the ground. Follow these steps to get your rhubarb patch started:
*While rhubarb leaves are mildly toxic, they are not the poison we have been led to believe. You would have to eat several pounds of rhubarb leaves to cause problems. In fact, spinach has more oxalic acid than rhubarb. That being said, I do not feed them to my chickens.
One easy way to keep weeds down in a rhubarb patch is to simply take a few of the large rhubarb leaves and lay them on the ground. The leaves block sunlight needed by the weeds and then they break down, adding organic matter to the soil.
Get your rhubarb crowns in today for a lifetime of red-stalked deliciousness!
You can grow a surprising amount of food in your own yard. Ask me how!