Did you know you can grow your own quinoa?
Just don’t do what I did, which was start it just as summer temperatures were reaching 100°F! Let’s learn more about this high protein, ancient grain that you can add to your foodscape.
What is quinoa?
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a member of the Chenopod family, along with amaranth and California goosefoot. It is also closely related to beets and spinach, along with lambs quarters and wormseed. Quinoa is grown for its high protein seeds. Unlike most cereal grains, quinoa is not a grass plant, so its seeds are classified as a pseudocereal. People started farming quinoa 4,000 years ago in the Peruvian Andes, but it has been a food staple for as long as 7,000 years. One of the things that makes quinoa so special is that it contains all eight essential amino acids used by our bodies to make a complete protein molecule, plus it is gluten-free, for those suffering celiac disease.
The quinoa plant
Quinoa is a self-pollinating dicot, which means its seeds split in half and its flowers have petals that are in multiples of four or five. Unlike many other plants, quinoa flowers are green. Its leaves are broad, with tiny hairs (trichomes), and lobed. Plants can grow from 18 inches tall to over six feet. The central stem may be green, purple, or red, depending on the variety. Quinoa seeds can be black, tan, white, pink, red, or purple, depending on the cultivar. All quinoa seeds are coated with saponins, which taste bitter. This protects developing seeds from birds and other seed eaters, but the coating needs to be rinsed off before cooking and eating your quinoa. [In parts of Africa, those saponins are collected and used as a laundry detergent!] While young quinoa leaves are edible, they do contain high levels of oxalic acid, which can cause respiratory and kidney problems. But you’d have to eat an awful lot of quinoa leaves to have a problem.
How to grow quinoa
Quinoa plants are pretty rugged. They can be grown from sea level all the way up to the highest mountain tops (13,000 ft.), just give them plenty of sunlight. You will want to select a variety that is suited to your microclimate and elevation. Quinoa grows best in loose, sandy soil, which we don’t have here in the Bay Area. This means you can either grow your quinoa in a raised bed, or you can incorporate a lot of aged compost into your quinoa bed before planting. This will provide nutrients and improve drainage. Do not try growing quinoa in containers - it needs more underground space than a container can provide. Quinoa prefers a soil pH of 6.0 to 8.5, so our alkaline soil isn’t a problem. Seeds should be planted 1/4 of an inch deep and watered very gently, to avoid washing seeds away before they get a chance to germinate.
Quinoa plants prefer temperatures from 25°F to 95°F, which mean can start growing quinoa in the Bay Area in the fall. That way, your plants will be harvested long before our quinoa-killing summer heat kicks in! Quinoa plants take 90 to 120 days to mature, so plant accordingly. Freezing temperatures will sterilize quinoa pollen, so frost that occurs during flowering can be problematic. Quinoa plants have deep taproots that make them drought resistant. These plants grow very slowly during their first two or three weeks, so snipping off weeds at ground level is the best way to reduce competition without disturbing the soil. Depending on the variety planted, plants only need 10 to 39 inches of water during the growing season. In the Bay Area, in an average year, we receive 15 inches of rain, so some irrigation may be needed, but not a lot. Quinoa plants should not be watered once they start going to seed.
Quinoa pests and diseases
While quinoa seeds protect themselves with saponins, many birds will still feast on your crop. You can use netting to reduce losses. Other pests include flea beetles, caterpillars, aphids, armyworms, and the recently discovered quinoa plant bug (Melanotrichus sp.). Bacillus thuringiensis can be used to control caterpillars. According to a report from Perdue University, there are no pesticides cleared for use on quinoa. Quinoa is prone to several fungal diseases, which is why good drainage is so important. Damping off disease, downy mildews, fusarium wilt, seed rot, leaf spot, and brown stalk rot can all affect your quinoa plants.
You will know it is time to harvest your quinoa crop when the leaves turn yellow, red, or purple, and start to drop off. The difficult part about harvesting quinoa is separating the seed from the rest of the plant. Similar to harvesting stone pine nuts, this is a labor intense process. Start by snipping off as much non-seed containing plant material as possible, and allowing the seed head to dry completely. You will want to protect these seed heads from moisture, because seeds will begin to germinate within 24 hours of being exposed to water. You will know the seeds are completely dry when you cannot leave a dent in one with your fingernail. Once they are completely dry, you can gently rub the seed heads against a colander or strainer to knock the seeds loose.
Even if you don’t harvest your quinoa, adding this plant to your garden or foodscape can increase biodiversity and, hey, it’s a strikingly beautiful edible plant!
Barley was one of the first grains ever grown domestically. It was cultivated in Eurasia 10,000 years ago ~ before people had even figured out how to make pottery!
Barley has been used as food, fodder, and currency. Barley is cited as a reason for many prehistoric cultures to develop into cities capable of maintaining armies, because of its ability to be stored. Barley beer is believed to be the first alcoholic beverage, created by Neolithic people, who malted* the grains. Rations of barley were given to workers since ancient times. Barley is still used today to make beer, whiskey, porridge, bread, soups and stews. And the U.S. and the U.K. still base their shoe sizing on the size of a barely corn (seed).
The barley plant
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a member of the grass family (Poaceae). It is a self-pollinating annual. Barley has a relatively short growing season, but it tolerates cool weather and drought, making it a good winter crop, here in the Bay Area. Barley seeds grow on a brittle spike, made up of spikelets. When the seeds mature, the spikelets fall apart, allowing the seeds to spread. The long hairs that stick up are called awns. There are two main types of barley, based on the way the seeds are arranged along a central stalk (rachis) and their fertility: two-row barley and six-row barley. In six-row barley, all of the seeds are fertile, whereas only one in three of the two-row barley are fertile. Two-row barley has less protein and more starch than six-row barley, making a better choice for malting and fermenting. Higher protein six-row barley is more commonly used for animal feed. There are spring and winter varieties of barley, depending on whether or not they need a period of cold to transition into their reproductive phase. In the Bay Area, that generally means planting in either October or January. Barley’s reproductive phase is characterized by true stems, called culms, carrying flowering heads, also known as a spikes or ears, that emerge from the sheath, or boot. surrounding the uppermost leaf (called the flag leaf). Barley grows 2-1/2 to 3 feet tall.
Barley seeds have tough coverings called hulls. Most varieties have hulls that are difficult to remove without losing or damaging some of the grain. These are also known as ‘covered’ barley. The barley you see in the store is usually hulled or pearled barley. Hulled barley is a whole grain, but pearled barley is not. Pearling removes several outer layers of the grain along with the hull. There are also hulless, or ‘naked’ barley varieties, but they aren’t really hulless. Instead, the hull is simply easier to separate from the grain. Barley hulls are often used to make pillows.
Why grow barley?
You may want to grow a small patch of barley, simply as a testament to our agricultural history, to know that you can. You may want to try making your own beer or whiskey. You may want to grow more of your own ingredients for a hearty winter soup. Barley can also be grown as a cover crop or green manure, to reduce erosion, improve soil structure, and suppress weeds. Barley is an excellent crop to install as your winter fava beans start ending their growing season. If you add a legume, such as peas or beans, and leave the plants in place, you can significantly improve nutrient cycling. Barley grown in winter has a deep, fibrous root system that can go down over 6 feet! Also, because barley grows so quickly, it absorbs surface water that would otherwise be used by weeds. Barley plants also shade out weeds and the plants emit allelopathic chemicals that suppress weed growth. Barley can also be used as a nurse crop. Nurse crops provide protection for slowing growing crops, such as beets.
How to grow barley
Barley seeds are planted using a method called drilling. Drilling is exactly what it sounds like: you drill a hole in the ground and drop a seed in. Commercial growers have heavy equipment that drills and plants seeds automatically. You probably don’t have one of those machines in your garage, so you will have to do it by hand. Barley seeds are planted deeply. By deeply, I mean 2 inches deep. When I first started growing things in my California concrete soil, I actually used a battery powered drill to plant seeds. After five years of composting, mulching, and top dressing, the drill is no longer needed. Now, I use a hand weeding tool to poke a hole in the ground.
Barley does not like waterlogged soils, so allow the soil to dry out between waterings. Of course, if it’s a rainy winter, there isn’t anything you can do about it other than continuing to add organic material to the soil, to improve drainage. You can see a spreadsheet of various barley cultivars suitable for growing in California here.
Barley pests and diseases
As a cereal grain, barley is prone to fungal diseases, such as leaf scald, net blotch, stripe rust, leaf spot, and stem rust. Common pests include mites, armyworms, grasshoppers, crane flies, stinkbugs, wireworms, and aphids. Also, aphids may carry a viral disease called barley yellow dwarf. Some people claim that barley acts as a natural pesticide, but research has not shown this to be true.
So, how about making a little room for a patch of barley? As a food crop, I expect that it will be much like endive, nasturtiums, lentils, and tomatoes - it will continue to turn up long after I have stopped planting it.
* What is malting?
Malting is a method used to make grains more appropriate for beer, whiskey vinegar, shakes, and many other food products. Malting consists of soaking cereal grains in water, to stimulate germination, but then drying the seeds with hot air before germination actually occurs. This triggers certain enzymes into action that convert starches into sugars, and break down certain proteins that are later used by yeast as food. Malted grains ferment quickly and become slightly alcoholic on their own.
Chenopods include edibles such as California goosefoot, amaranth, and quinoa.
Many chenopods are considered severe agricultural pests, and the pollen from all of these plants can cause an allergic reaction for some people. Flowers generally bloom from spring through fall, but we can enjoy the benefits provided by some of the more benign varieties without adding invasives into our gardens and landscapes.
The Chenopod family
Chenopods refer to members of the Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae families. Russian thistle, waterhemp, pigweed, and kochia are all chenopods. Plants in this group can be annuals or perennials. They may be herbs, shrubs, or even trees. And they may grow in an erect or prostrate manner. In other words, chenopods have evolved in many different ways. Scientists are still debating chenopod classification, but we will leave that to them. Collectively, chenopod branches are alternate (which means they take turns up a stem), the leaves have petioles (tiny stems) and are shaped like a goose’s foot; hence the name ’cheno’, which means goose, and ‘pod’ which means foot. Young leaves and stems are often covered with tiny hairs (trichomes) or a white mealy dust, a condition called farinose. Humans have been eating chenopods for over 6,000 years. Below are some of the more common chenopod edibles.
Chenopod pests and diseases
Birds and butterflies enjoy eating the seeds, but these plants continue to survive and thrive, so the damage can’t be all that significant. The same holds true for apple stem grooving virus, tobacco necrosis virus, and the cowbane mosaic virus. They try to slow these plants down, but generally cannot.
Find a sunny spot in your garden or landscape for these colorful edibles!
I hope this information inspires you to grow more of your own food. You can ask your garden questions on my Home page.