Potential for frost
Sudden rain and shorter days
Just as natural cycles cause plants, animals, and insects to draw closer to home, move around or grow less, and to retain resources, we can copy those behaviors to the benefit of our garden and landscape. While there is still time to plant winter crops mentioned in the October notes, and cover crops, November is an excellent time to clean up and prepare for the holidays and colder weather.
Fall clean up
If you haven’t already, this is a good time to discard any plants that are not thriving. Annuals and other garden plants that have completed their life cycle are best removed by cutting at ground level, rather than pulling. Pulling plants up by the roots disrupts microbe populations, which interferes with soil health. Also, by cutting plants off at root level, you may get a surprise next spring when that annual turns out to be more tenacious than you thought!
Before the rains get started, this is a good time to look through stacks of materials to see what needs cleaning, repairing, sharpening, or discarding. Plant saucers and pots should always be scrubbed clean and then soaked in a solution of one part bleach to nine parts water for ten minutes to prevent the spread of disease. They should also be stored upside down or on their edge to prevent water collection and mosquito breeding. [I used the staves from a half barrel, that had started to rot, to create a simple storage system for planter saucers. I just drilled screws in from above. It makes them easy to see and they do not collect water.]
As trees drop their leaves, think before you rake. Fallen leaves make excellent compost or mulch but they will interfere with your lawn, if you still have one. Leaves should be removed from lawns and concrete (due to staining), but there is no reason that I know of for removing leaves from anywhere else. From my point of view, fallen leaves are plant foods and soil amendments that have been around a lot longer than us. The only exception might be leaves that are exposed to a lot of car exhaust. You might not want to add those amendments to your soil.
If you have rain barrels in place, be sure to check all the connections and spigots before the rain starts. If you haven't yet, this is an excellent time to take a power washer or your garden hose to the interior of your rain barrels. Throughout the year, various microorganisms can take up housekeeping in these moist, protected areas, and some of those critters can cause illness in pets, plants, and humans.
Sooty mold fungus
Remember those aphids, mealybugs, whitefly and scale bugs that tormented your garden all summer? Well, they left behind copious amounts of honeydew that create the perfect growth medium for mold. Sooty mold is common in the Bay Area and is easy to recognize as black smudges on leaves and fruit. While the mold can be washed off food and eaten safely, it can be devastating to host plants. The mold actually blocks sunlight from entering the leaves, slowing or even halting photosynthesis. Ants carry the disease, so slowing ant traffic can be a big help. The easiest way to block ants is to wrap tape around the trunks of trees and apply sticky barriers to the tape. Also, trim branches away from buildings, fences and other plants, and use ant bait. While you are at it, November is also the perfect time to caulk your home against winter invaders.
Fires can be devastating. Change the batteries in your smoke detector, have your chimney and/or furnace inspected, and look at your landscape with an eye for fire safe gardening.
Cooler temperatures may reduce the number of pests in your garden and landscape, but imported cabbageworms and Harlequin bugs will be doing their very best to wreck your cole crops. Cabbages, cauliflower, and broccoli leaves should be checked frequently for cabbage moth eggs (tiny clear-ish white flecks on the underside of leaves), small (and some not-so small!) green cabbageworms, and clusters of drum-shaped Harlequin bug eggs. These eggs can simply be brushed off and the hatched larva will generally be unable to find their way back to the host plant. You can also use row covers, once you are absolutely certain that you have removed all the eggs. [Check every few days anyway, just in case.]
It may be difficult to imagine frost in California, but Santa Clara Valley's first frost date is November 15th. Frost dates are statistical averages over time. They are not written in stone. I can tell you, speaking from experience, it is far easier and more comfortable for you to prepare your plants' frost protection against winter sunscald and frost cracks before it is needed. Old bedsheets, row covers, and even umbrellas can provide all the protection that's needed, just be sure to make it so that the fabric does not actually touch the plant.
You can stabilize soil temperatures, reduce weeds, and slowly add nutrients to your soil with mulch. You can buy different sizes, colors, and materials, or you can contact local tree trimming companies for free mulch. Wherever it comes from, be sure that it is disease-free and that it won't float away when the rains comes.
Foggy mornings pale
Seared from sight by blazing sun
Nectarine juice drips
Aside from watering, August may seem like the perfect time to take a break form the heat, but there are still plenty of garden tasks to choose from!
While ants do help aerate the soil, they can also damage crops and spread disease. Fruit trees can be protected with sticky barriers. Boric acid bait traps can be an effective control method, just be sure the baits are placed where children and pets cannot reach them.
Now is the time to be on the lookout for codling moth larva. From the outside, an apple will have a small, scabby spot. If you cut (or bite) into the apple, you will see that this spot leads to a trail that heads toward the core. You can interrupt the codling moth lifecycle by collecting and removing any fallen fruit that would provide an overwintering haven.
Unlike other trees, which are pruned when they are dormant, apricot trees are best pruned in summer. Apricot trees are susceptible to a fungus called Eutypa dieback, which can infect trees if rain reaches fresh pruning cuts.
This is the time of year when Japanese beetles, dried fruit beetles, and June beetles are the easiest to see (and eliminate). Japanese beetles will skeletonize many plants. These pests tend to cling to their favorite foods and are easy to knock into cans of soapy water. [I used to pay the neighborhood children a nickel for every June bug they eliminated - very useful in Virginia!] June bugs are clumsy fliers and easy to slap down with a net. Both can be fed to chickens. Dried fruit beetles and June bugs do not bite or sting and dogs can be trained to chase and kill them before they lay eggs in the soil. These eggs will later hatch and the larvae will devour lawn, ornamental, and other plant roots.
Just as in April and June, oranges and other mature citrus trees should be fed one-half pound of nitrogen in August. Blood meal is an excellent source of nitrogen, without all the fillers. Ammonium sulfate is another good source of nitrogen.
This is the time of year when all that hard work and patience really pay off. Keep plants healthy and enjoy the fruits of your labor by harvesting frequently. This reduces the number of places where pests and diseases can hide. This also prevents many plants from going to seed and ending fruit production. When harvesting tree fruit, be sure to keep a look out for mummified fruit. Remove mummies and dispose of them in the trash, not the compost pile.
This drought tolerant shrub is a great way to attract pollinators. After it has bloomed, cut plants back, close to the ground. This will prevent plants from becoming too leggy and it stimulates more flower development.
If you have a lawn and it has not turned completely brown, allow it to grow longer than you would in cooler months. Taller grass protects the soil and helps retain moisture. And be on the lookout for masked chafers and southern chinch bugs.
Mite infestations often look like nothing more than light webbing around leaves and stems. This webbing is followed by leaf stippling, chlorosis, and leaf drop. Water-stressed plants are more susceptible, as are dusty plants. Mites are related to spiders. Adults have eight legs, but the young only have six. Spraying pesticides often backfires because mite predators, such as lacewings and pirate bugs, are killed. Often, you can use a soft-bristled brush to dislodge these pests.
By August, most rain barrels have run dry, making this the perfect time to clean out any debris in the remaining grey water, along with any mosquito larvae. West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and many other diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes, so it is important to regularly eliminate any standing water. Mosquito dunks should be added to any standing water every 30 days.
Hot weather means trees need more water. Trees planted in a lawn that is being watered regularly will still need a deep watering 2 or 3 times during the summer, or more, depending on the weather. Stand alone mature fruit and nut trees will need a deep watering every 3 - 4 weeks, while younger trees will need to be watered every 2 weeks. Ideally, there is an irrigation ring around each tree at the drip line.
August is an excellent time to start seeds for winter crops. Spinach, beets, lettuce, arugula, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cilantro, bush beans, fava beans, leeks, radishes, and peas can all be started in small containers for transplanting after summer crops are done. This gives you a head start on the cooler growing season, just be sure to keep the soil moist. A thin layer of vermiculite can help retain moisture.
Longer days of sun
Burst forth fruits and leaves
June is a busy month in the garden. Summer heat means irrigation and ants seem to be everywhere. Fruits, flowers, and mulch are the name of the game when it comes to June garden chores.
Ants & aphids
The bane of all gardeners, aphids are in full force in June. You may see ant trails in trees or curled leaves. Ants and aphids have a mutually beneficial relationship that may not kill garden plants, but they can carry diseases that will. They can also make fruit and vegetables inedible. Monitor for ants and aphids at least twice a week. If ant trails are seen, wrap tree trunks with tape and apply sticky barriers. This sticky goo will prevent ants form protecting and farming the aphids and halt the spread of many diseases. Aphid populations can then be reduced with a powerful spray from the hose. Adding plants that attract beneficial insects will also curb aphid populations.
Armored scale are parasites that suck the living sap from shrubs and trees. In June, these difficult to control pests are in a crawler stage that is easier to defeat. Monitor plants for armored scale infestations. Apply horticultural oil (not dormant oil) every month in summer to affected plants.
Bees are out in force, collecting pollen and nectar for their families (and pollinating nearly all of our garden crops). If you see a swarm, know that swarming bees are generally not aggressive or a threat, they are simply looking for a new home. You call contact your local Bee Guild or Master Gardeners for information on swarm collection. Honey bees continue to struggle and research on colony collapse disorder is ongoing. Recent findings have shown that systemic pesticides made with neonicotinoids are adding to the threat against native bees, but not honey bees. You can do your part to help our pollinators (and protect our honey supply) by avoiding the use of insecticides and pesticides when bees are present.
Blossom end rot
Are there brown depressions on the bottom of your tomatoes? This is caused by not enough calcium or irregular watering. Since most soils have adequate calcium, watering is usually the culprit. Without regular watering, the calcium in the soil cannot reach the plant. Mulching can help. Water tomatoes regularly, allowing the soil to dry out between waterings.
Blackened twigs & branches
If twigs and branches are turning dark or burnt looking, you have a problem. Generally, the damage starts at the tips and moves toward the body of the plant. This can either be dieback or fireblight. In either case, all you can do is remove the damaged tissue, cutting well below the visible infection and cleaning your clippers with disinfectant between each cut. Take a close look at the cut to make sure healthy tissue is visible. To reduce the chance of these fungal diseases attacking fruit trees in June, reduce or halt watering during the bloom and avoid adding nitrogen. Nitrogen stimulates new growth that is especially vulnerable to infection.
In California, most soils contain adequate nutrients for citrus growth, except nitrogen. One-year old trees will need 1/10 of a pound of nitrogen, while mature trees need approximately 1-1/2 pounds. These amounts should be divided into three different feedings in April, June and August. Blood meal is an excellent source of nitrogen, without all the fillers, or you can purchase a balanced product that contains zinc. Spread the fertilizer evenly over the entire root area and water in.
QUARANTINE WARNING: MOST OF SANTA CLARA COUNTY IS UNDER QUARANTINE FOR CITRUS, DUE TO THE ASIAN CITRUS PSYLLID. CHECK THIS MAP TO SEE IF YOU ARE AFFECTED.
Container planting is an excellent way to garden in small spaces and to add art and color to the landscape. However, June’s high temperatures can dry out containers very rapidly. To make matters worse, frequent irrigation can also leach out nutrients. It’s a dilemma. Gardeners can reduce these problems by using glazed clay pots, which dry out slower than unglazed pots. Dark plastic should also be avoided because it can get too hot and cook the roots. Good drainage is important, but you can help container plants hang on to water and nutrients by using potting soil, rather than planting mix. Also, be sure to get those pots off hot concrete. By creating even a little air space under the pots, you can help them stay cool.
June usually provides an abundance of fruit. If damaged fruit is seen, take a closer look. If the fruit looks chewed on, it’s probably rats or squirrels. Personally, I use Bobbex-R to deter these destructive, disease-carrying pests. My dogs enjoy helping out, too! I also use traps to kill rats. It’s a bit disgusting, but it works.
Does the fruit show stab marks? That’s usually birds. The only way to keep birds out of fruit trees is with netting or a tree cage. The netting is a royal pain to put up and take down, but it’s surprisingly easy to build a permanent tree cage. Most birds will only take a bite or two out of dozens of fruits, ruining a crop. Netting placed directly on the plant does not protect fruit near the netting. I also discourage birds by hanging old CDs in my fruit trees and mounting shiny pinwheels in various places. Breezes cause them to spin and reflect light, which seems to alarm the birds some of the time..
Spent ornamental flowers should be removed to stimulate new growth. When deadheading, don’t clip just below the flower. Instead, look down the stem for a leaf connection that shows bud growth. June deadheading is also a good time to prune for improved shape, structure and air flow.
Another common pest, earwigs are second only to slugs and snails in garden destruction. Even though they eat aphids, the damage they cause doesn’t balance out. Trap earwigs in moist, tightly rolled newspaper or cardboard tubes. Earwigs will gather in these bundles after their nightly feeding and you can toss them in the trash in the morning.
Fruit drop and fruit thinning
Don't be concerned if your fruit trees suddenly drop a majority of their blossoms or immature fruits. This normal behavior, called June drop or blossom drop, prevents trees from producing more fruit than they can support. To help your trees create the highest quality and best sized fruit, this is the time to thin fruits.
If you haven’t already, June is a good time to check irrigation systems for leaks. Drip systems should be flushed and emitters checked for clogs. This is also a good time to test to see where, exactly, sprinklers are spraying and where they are not. There’s no sense in wasting precious water in urban drool and the spray should never hit tree trunks.
Mulching is one of the best things you can do in the garden, especially in June. Mulching stabilizes soil temperatures, reduces weeds, and helps the soil retain moisture. Aged compost, placed on top of the soil, is mulch. Tree trimmings make excellent mulch and they can be acquired for free from tree trimming companies! As mulch breaks down, it adds valuable nutrients to the soil and improves soil structure. Just make sure that mulch is kept away from tree trunks and that it isn’t too thick. Generally speaking, a layer of 3 inches is just right. Too much mulch can interfere with gas exchanges.
If you haven't started already, June is an excellent time to plant those heat loving peppers, squashes, eggplants, and melons. Also, you can create an ongoing harvest by succession planting radishes, beans, and other determinant crops.
As roses give us their lovely June blooms, they may also put out suckers. Most modern roses are actually grafted onto hardy root stock that will not produce those lovely flowers. If new growth is emerging from underground, rip them out. Desirable canes, on the other hand, will grow out of aboveground buds and should be allowed to grow (assuming they won’t result in crossed canes or poor air flow. Black spot, rust, and powdery mildew are common fungal diseases of roses. Proper pruning can reduce the chances of these diseases occurring. Diseased leaves should be removed and discarded.
Be sure to put on your sunscreen, wear a hat, and keep those tools clean and sharp as you enjoy the garden in June!