Foggy mornings pale
Seared from sight by blazing sun
Nectarine juice drips
Aside from watering, August may seem like the perfect time to take a break form the heat, but there are still plenty of things going on in your garden!
While ants do help aerate the soil, they can also damage crops and spread disease. Fruit trees can be protected with sticky barriers. Boric acid bait traps can be an effective control method, just be sure the baits are placed where children and pets cannot reach them.
Now is the time to be on the lookout for codling moth larva. From the outside, an apple will have a small, scabby spot. If you cut (or bite) into the apple, you will see that this spot leads to a trail that heads toward the core. You can interrupt the codling moth lifecycle by collecting and removing any fallen fruit that would provide an overwintering haven. Unaffected apples can also be protected by bagging them or dusting them with kaolin clay.
This is the time of year when Japanese beetles, dried fruit beetles, and June beetles are the easiest to see (and eliminate). Japanese beetles will skeletonize many plants. These pests tend to cling to their favorite foods and are easy to knock into cans of soapy water. [When I lived in Virginia, I used to pay the neighborhood children a nickel for every June bug they eliminated - it was very effective and the kids had fun and earned some money!] June bugs are clumsy fliers and easy to slap down with a net. Most beetles can be fed to chickens. Dried fruit beetles and June bugs do not bite or sting and dogs can be trained to chase and kill them before they lay eggs in the soil. These eggs will later hatch and the larval grubs will devour lawn, ornamental, and other plant roots.
Just as in April and June, oranges and other mature citrus trees should be fed one-half pound of nitrogen in August. Blood meal is an excellent source of nitrogen, without all the fillers. Ammonium sulfate is another good source of nitrogen.
This is the time of year when all that hard work and patience really pay off. Keep plants healthy and enjoy the fruits of your labor by harvesting frequently. This reduces the number of places where pests and diseases can hide. This also prevents many plants from going to seed and ending fruit production. When harvesting tree fruit, be sure to keep a look out for mummified fruit. Remove mummies and dispose of them in the trash, not the compost pile.
This drought tolerant shrub is a great way to attract pollinators. After it has bloomed, cut lavender plants back, close to the ground. This will prevent plants from becoming too leggy and it stimulates more flower development.
If you have a lawn and it has not turned completely brown, allow it to grow longer than you would in cooler months. Taller grass protects and shades the soil and helps retain moisture. You can even let it go to seed and save money on lawn seed in the autumn! Be on the lookout for masked chafers and southern chinch bugs.
This has been a particularly bad year for mites in my garden. Mite infestations often look like nothing more than light webbing around leaves and stems. This webbing is followed by leaf stippling, chlorosis, and leaf drop. Water-stressed plants are more susceptible, as are dusty plants. Mites are related to spiders. Adults have eight legs, but the young only have six. Spraying pesticides often backfires because mite predators, such as lacewings and pirate bugs, are killed. Often, you can use a soft-bristled brush to dislodge these pests.
Moles and voles
Underground ridges in your lawn often mean you have moles. Moles eat insects and worms, but their tunneling can damage roots and redirect irrigation water away from your plants. Voles will devour root systems. In both cases, trapping is your best control method.
By August, most rain barrels have run dry, making this the perfect time to clean out any debris in the remaining grey water, along with any mosquito larvae. West Nile Virus, Zika Virus, and many other diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes, so it is important to regularly eliminate any standing water. Mosquito dunks should be added to any standing water every 30 days.
Green or brown shield-shaped stink bugs eat seeds, grain, fruit, vegetables, ornamental plants, legumes, weeds and tree leaves. They can also transmit tomato bacterial spot with piercing mouthparts. There are hundreds of different stink bug species, the most commonly seen in California are bagrada bugs, brown marmorated stink bugs, rough stink bugs, harlequin bugs, and uhler’s stink bugs. You may see white or yellow eggs on tomatoes, or tight rows of tiny grayish eggs on netting. Unfortunately, insecticides are ineffective against stink bugs. Frequent inspections and hand picking are your best control methods. If put in place early enough, row covers can prevent stink bugs from reaching your crops.
Leaf cover is a plant’s equivalent to sunscreen. Insufficient leave cover and/or irrigation can make plants susceptible to sunburn, or, more technically, sunscald. Tomatoes and peppers are especially vulnerable to sunscald. Rather than turning red and peeling, the way we do, the side of fruit exposed to too much sun will look bleached and brown and leathery. Insufficient nitrogen is a common cause for too few leaves, but you can provide shade cloth in extreme situations. Just make sure the plants still get the sunlight they need to grow and thrive.
Hot weather means trees need more water. Trees planted in a lawn that is being watered regularly will still need a deep watering 2 or 3 times during the summer, or more, depending on the weather. Solitary mature fruit and nut trees will need a deep watering every 3 - 4 weeks, while younger trees will need to be watered every 2 weeks. Ideally, there is an irrigation ring around each tree at the drip line. This is also a good time to check the sticky barriers and whitewashing on fruit and nut trees, feed citrus trees, and prune apricot and cherry trees. Unlike other trees, which are pruned when they are dormant, apricot and cherry trees are best pruned in summer. This is because they are susceptible to a fungus called Eutypa dieback, which can infect trees if rain reaches fresh pruning cuts.
August is an excellent time to start seeds for California's winter crops. Spinach, beets, lettuce, arugula, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cilantro, bush beans, fava beans, leeks, radishes, and peas can all be started in small containers for transplanting after summer crops are done. This gives you a head start on the cooler growing season, just be sure to keep the soil moist. A thin layer of vermiculite can help retain moisture in those pots.
Remember that your plants are not the only things that need extra hydration and sun protection in summer! You do, too! Be sure to drink lots of water, slather on the sunscreen, and wear that hat!
Greens bolt and wither
Searing heat and glare above
Seek shade and cool water
July can get too hot to spend much time outside. Early morning and late evening make working in the garden far more comfortable, but leave most of the heavy work to the plants as they produce leaves, stems, and fruit in response to all that sunlight. The best things you can do for your garden in July is irrigate properly and monitor plants for pests and diseases.
Monitoring for pests and diseases
You know what they say about an ounce of prevention. Well, here are a few helpful July ideas that work to prevent problems in the garden before they have a chance to get started:
It’s all too easy to forget about the trees in your landscape, but scorching summer heat and an extended drought can be devastating. Trees are a big investment of time and space, so be sure to include them in your watering plan. The only exception is California live oaks - they are accustomed to hot, dry summers and watering them only makes them susceptible to disease.
There is no fixed magic formula for watering plants in the garden. There are simply too many variables, such as plant variety and age, soil structure, feeding practices, sun and wind exposure, overall plant health and life stage - you get the idea. The best way to assure that your garden plants are getting the water they need is to learn as much as you can about the specific varieties and their water needs. This information will help you to provide them with the growing conditions they need. Be sure to water tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and squash consistently, to avoid blossom end rot.
During summer, container plants may need a drink practically every day. Just be sure to avoid overwatering - a drowning plant looks an awful lot like a plant that’s dying of thirst. An inexpensive moisture meter ($10-15) can help prevent irrigation errors. Also, be sure to get those containers up off the concrete. Even the smallest air space underneath can significantly reduce temperatures for potted plants.
If you still have a lawn, be sure to raise the blade on your mower. Taller grass shades the ground, reducing water loss and stabilizing soil temperatures. By the end of July, your lawn will probably be brown, and that’s okay. Keep watering it. The root system will stay alive, and green shoots will come back in the fall after temperatures go down. [I use water from my washing machine with no negative results and my lawn stays green far longer.]
Basil and other heat lovers
It is finally warm enough for crops such as basil, melons, eggplant, and peppers to really thrive. These are some of my favorite plants. You can train melons up a trellis or ladder, and you can never have too much basil. If you have more than you can use fresh, simply whip up a batch of pesto and throw it in the freezer. Come January, you’ll be glad you did!
Mulch and top dressings
Summer is an excellent time to mulch unused garden areas. As it breaks down, the organic material will improve soil structure and add valuable plant nutrients. This is particularly helpful if you have compacted soil. Until it does break down, mulch stabilizes soil temperatures, reduces weed competition, and helps soil retain water. In the same way, top dressing the plants in your garden or foodscape with aged compost is a trouble-free way to add nutrients to growing plants without applying chemical fertilizers.
Fire safe gardening
Summer fires can be devastating, but you can slow the spread of fire with fire safe gardening. Rural areas of California and other states are required, by law, to maintain a defensible space around homes. You can use the same ideas to protect your home and family:
And leave the fireworks to the pros.
As you lounge in the shade with an iced tea, remember that July is an excellent time to consider what cool season crops can be added in fall!
As busy as bees
We pierce the warming topsoil
With dreams of freshness
May is one of the busiest months in the garden. Temperatures have warmed enough for us to begin planting in earnest. Weeds, pests, and beneficial insects are out in force. And it's gorgeous outside!
Aerate the soil
Our San Francisco Bay Area soil is heavy clay. This means it can hold on to lots of water and nutrients, but it can be difficult for roots, earthworms, and soil microorganisms. You can hire a professional aerator to come in with their heavy equipment to punch plugs out of your soil. While the machine creates its own soil compaction, the plugs really do make a big difference in soil health. Or, you can do what I do, which is to contact your local tree trimmer and ask for a load of tree trimmings. It won’t be the pretty bagged variety, but it will contain chipped twigs, leaves, stems and branches that can be spread on top of the soil as a mulch that will profoundly improve your soil structure. In 2012, when we bought our home, the soil was more like concrete. Now, thanks to mulches of tree trimmings, my soil is rich and black, loose, and filled with earthworms and beneficial microorganisms. For free.
Bees are very active in May. There is simply so much pollen and nectar to collect! Sometimes, a honey bee colony may swarm. If you see a swarm, don’t panic. As in any other time when working around bees, remain calm, move gently, and give them their space. Contact your local Bee Guild or Master Gardeners to have swarms removed.
Bulbs and other flowers
If flowering bulbs were looking crowded during the recent bloom time, delay digging them up to separate until after all the foliage is completely dry. Bulbs pull important nutrients from these leaves to help start up again next spring. Bulbs that are dug up and separated can be replanted in a new location, gifted to friends, or stored in a cool, dry, dark location until fall. If you want fall blooms, plant now.
They are countless varieties of plants that perform well in containers. Do them all a favor in May and get them off that soon-to-be hot concrete patio. Creating even the smallest space under container plants can reduce the roasting effect, which means they will need less water. Speaking of water, warmer temperatures mean container plants will start drying out more quickly. Water as needed.
Many flowers are in full bloom in May. To encourage plants to continue creating blooms, remove spent flowers as soon as they are seen. This also reduces habitat for many pests and diseases. Pinch back borage, petunias, and fuchsias to prevent plants from becoming top heavy.
May is the time fireblight shows itself in the Bay Area. Fireblight is a bacterial disease that makes plants look as though they had been damaged by fire. It attacks apples, pear and quince, most often, but can also infect ornamentals, such as toyon and pyracantha. Very often, the growing tip folds over into a shepherd’s crook shape. Fireblight can kill a mature tree, so complete removal of any diseased tissue is critical. Sanitize pruners with a household cleaner, such as Lysol, between each cut to prevent reinfection. The final cut should be 8-12 inches below the diseased area.
May should be the time when fruit trees are covered with immature fruits. Thin those fruits now or regret it later. Too much fruit in one place means none of them taste as good as they might have. It also creates habitat for pests and disease. Apples should be thinned to no more than 3 fruits to a cluster, or one fruit for every 6 inches of branch. Apricots and other stone fruits need 4-6” between fruits for optimal growth, flavor, and sweetness. Also, be sure to check apples for codling moth damage.
If you still have a lawn, be sure to water it as early in the morning as possible. That way, the water isn’t lost to evaporation and the grass has time to dry out during the day, reducing the chance of fungal diseases. For the most part, I use water from my washing machine to water my lawn and it has been working very well. Check the lawn for weeds such as spurge, burclover, and whatever happens to invade your neighborhood. When mowing, set the blade height as high as you are comfortable with in summer. Taller grass shades the soil. This reduces evaporation and it makes the soil more comfortable for valuable earthworms and microbes.
Mulch and compost
Compost and mulch are two of the best things to add to any landscape. They add valuable nutrients to the soil, improve soil structure, and stabilize soil temperature. In our heavy clay soil, mulch prevents the baked concrete look we have come to expect in summer. [An important note about soil additives - while it may sound right to add sand to clay soil, to reduce compaction, it ends up creating concrete. Don’t do it!]
Slugs & snails
Slugs and snails can devastate young May seedlings. Applying non-toxic slug and snail bait lightly around new planting areas can save the crop. While there are more effective baits, those made with iron phosphate are not toxic to pets and wildlife and I have found they work well enough.
Before you start applying fertilizers and fungicides, collect a soil sample and send it out to a lab. [I use the UMass lab, but there are many to choose from]. The information provided in soil test results is invaluable. More often than not, your soil does not need more of all the nutrients found in a bag of fertilizer. It may only need some, or, in my case, it only needed iron because it held an excess of everything else. Simply adding more fertilizer can create nutrient imbalances that make it difficult for plants to absorb what they need. Get a soil test. It’s worth it.
This is the most welcome news of the season in the Bay Area. Nearly all summer growing plants (tomatoes, cucumbers, melons, squash, beans, corn, and peppers) can be put in the ground in May. If you are using transplants, be sure harden them off gradually or they may lose much of their vigor and productivity. Hardening-off simply means placing them outdoors in a protected location for a few hours. Slowly increase the time over a couple of weeks. Be sure to stake tomato plants now, while they are small. This can be done in tandem with quarantining new plants. And add straw under melon, squash, and strawberry plants to reduce fungal infection.
If verticillium wilt occurred last year, it is important to plant members of the nightshade family (tomatoes, potatoes, peppers and eggplant) someplace else. Verticillium wilt is a fungal disease that shows as yellowing older leaves, at first. Then, as the disease spreads, wilting occurs. Young plants nearly always die. Since the fungal spores can remain in the soil for 10-15 years, crop rotation is the best prevention.
California’s drought is continuing, despite the fair bit of rain we have received so far. The truth is, the Golden State has always been drought-prone and we would be wise to learn to live accordingly. When water restrictions were first implemented, I vowed to take meaningful steps to reduce our water consumption. As a result, we now use only 25% of the water we used to use! Surprisingly, my garden has not suffered and neither have we. These steps can help you conserve water while still caring for the garden:
Just as young garden plants are really kicking it into high gear in May, so are the weeds. Take my word for it, pulling them while they are small, and before the soil is baked, is much easier than later. Weeds take precious water and nutrients from garden plants. In most cases, the sooner they are gone, the better.
So, put on the hat and sunscreen and get out there in that May garden!