If you love your trees (or your blueberries), be on the lookout for Asian longhorned beetles.
Native to China, Japan, and Korea, these invasive, wood boring beetles love to hitch overseas rides on wood-related packing materials: shavings, pallets, that sort of thing. In 1996, an infestation of Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis) was discovered in Brooklyn. Two years later, a second sighting occurred in Chicago. Then, they were found in New York, New Jersey, and Illinois, where they are responsible for the removal of thousands of trees. These pests have already cost state and federal government (our tax dollars) over $168 million and that number looks to rise exponentially, now that they have expanded their range into California and Washington.
The potential economic impact was first estimated to be more than $41 billion. That number has increased to nearly $700 billion, and that’s before you factor in the damage to breakfast morale when the northeast’s sugar maples are attacked! Eradication efforts got into affect each time these invasive pests are found, sometimes successfully, sometimes not. The U.S. Customs Department is working hard to halt the importation of these pests. Eradication in the U.S. is still possible, but it’s an uphill battle. And they need our help.
Asian longhorned beetle identification
Asian longhorned beetles (ALBs), also known as starry sky or sky beetles, are easy to identify. Approximately one inch wide and and an inch-and-a-half long, they are shiny black with 20 white spots on each wing cover, and they feature an impressive set of black and white banded antennae. They have long, whitish-blue feet and large mandibles. Larvae are large and cream colored.
Adult female beetles chew pits into wood and then deposit their eggs into those pits, one at a time. She can lay up to 90 eggs in just a few weeks.
When the eggs hatch, larvae tunnel deep into the tree (where they are safe from predators and pesticides), leaving behind a trail of frass. Deep within the tree, the larvae go through several instars before entering a pupal stage.
As adults, they tunnel out of the tree, leaving 3/8-inch exit holes along trunks and branches. Piles of frass can be seen at the base of infected trees and in branch crotches. Branch dieback and leaf wilting are early signs of infestation. The egg sites and larval feeding make the trees susceptible to many other pests and diseases, as well as more vulnerable to damage from heavy winds. Sap is often seen oozing from wounds. This larval tunneling causes extensive damage and girdling, making the wood unusable and eventually killing the tree. Infested trees must be removed and destroyed by trained professionals. Do not attempt this yourself.
Trees susceptible to ALB
Many popular hardwood trees are vulnerable to ALB infestation. These trees include alder, ash, beech, birch, boxelder, elm, hackberry, hornbeam, horse chestnut, mimosa, planes, poplar, sycamore, and willow. And blueberries! And members of the Prunus family, which includes apricots, peaches, nectarines, cherries, and almonds! We do not yet know what the impact will be on California’s native hardwood trees.
Experts predict that this pest could cause more damage than gypsy moths, Dutch elm disease, and chestnut blight combined, destroyed millions of acres of trees across the country, in parks, along streets, in backyards, and in agriculture. Dead and dying trees are more likely to cause fires and they are unable to support the biodiversity that keeps a region healthy. If you consider all the wood-based products we use every day, ALB could cause many prices to increase significantly. All because of an insect.
If you see it, catch it! Report it!
If you see an Asian longhorned beetle, catch it. Period. Just do it. They don't bite or sting. While they can fly, they don’t do it very well and only for short distances. You can do this.
Your efforts could save millions of trees and billions of dollars. Seriously.
Put your captive in a glass jar [they chew through trees, remember?] and place it in the freezer. Be sure to label the jar with where you found it (GPS position, if possible), the date you found it, and your contact information. These reports are critical if we are to protect our trees. Using this information, experts can create quarantine zones and implement eradication programs most effectively.
If you live in California, call the CDFA hotline at 1-800-491-1899. In fact, put the number in your phone now, so you’ll have it if you ever need it. I did. If you live outside of California, report it to your state’s Department of Agriculture. Together, we can save millions of trees.
You can grow a surprising amount of food in your own yard. Ask me how!