Your chewing gum is made from trees. Well, it used to be.
Tree gums have been used as a chewable treat for over 9,000 years. Mayans and Aztecs used gum from the chicle tree. Ancients Greeks used gum from the mastic tree. Native Americans used gum from spruce trees. It was the Americans, however, who make chewing gum famous to the point that there were not enough trees to produce the gum needed to make gum. It is estimated that over 100,000 tons of chewing gum are consumed each year. Most modern chewing gum is made with natural and/or synthetic rubber and not botanical gums.
But gum isn’t the only goo produced by plants.
Plants ooze several different substances. Gum is only one of them. Plants also produce fats and oils, latex, mucilage, resin, and waxes. The fats and oils produced by plants are more commonly known as essential oils. Essential oils can be responsible for a plant’s unique smell or flavor. Latex is the milky white emulsion of defensive chemicals seen oozing from broken dandelion stems. Mucilage is used to store food and water, thicken membranes, and in seed germination. Succulents and flax seeds have particularly high mucilage contents. Resin is a viscous mixture of antibacterial, antimicrobial acids commonly seen in conifers. Resin dries to a hard, crystalline structure. And then there is plain old sap.
Sap has different components, depending upon where it is found. Xylem sap carries water, hormones, and minerals from the roots to the leaves. Phloem sap conducts sugars, hormones, and minerals from leaves, where carbohydrates are produced through photosynthesis. Sap generally stays fluid. Gums are a specialized type of sap produced by woody plants.
[Plum gum? Sorry, I couldn't resist.]
How do plants use gums?
Gums are produced in a process called gummosis. Gumming refers to the way some plants can break down internal tissues, particularly cellulose, to create a high-sugar sap, or gum, used to seal off wounds and surround invading insects. Gums are commonly found in conifers, such as pine and spruce. Some plants, such as Western poison oak, use gums as protective, gummy seed coatings that delay germination.
How do we use botanical gums?
Botanical gums are water-soluble sugars that are commonly used in the food industry as emulsifiers, thickening agents, and stabilizers. They are also used as adhesives, in printing, candy-making, paper-making, and to make chewing gum.
If you look at ingredient lists on packaged food (and I urge you to do so), you may see some of these botanical gums:
Gums are frequently collected by tapping or otherwise wounding trees with incisions or by peeling back sections of bark. The trees respond to these wounds by gumming.
Tapping is the method used to collect the sap from sugar maple trees to make maple syrup. A tap consists of a metal tube with a downward-pointing lip and a notch or hook from which to hang a bucket. The tube end is hammered into a tree to reach the xylem and a bucket hung from the lip. Sap from the xylem flows (very, very slowly) through the tube, down the lip, and into the bucket. From there, the sap is cooked down to reduce the water content. More modern set-ups use plastic tubing. My students and I once made a delicious syrup/caramel from silver maple trees.
Some of these gums stay soft, while others harden into “tears” which are broken off for processing. If you see gums oozing from your trees, take a closer look.
The soil under your feet and in your garden is [or should be] teeming with life. Worms, roots, microorganisms, and insects call the soil home. The insects are called arthropods and they play a major role in soil health and plant vitality.
In a single square yard of topsoil, there may be 500 to 200,000 individual arthropods.
What are arthropods?
Arthropods get their name because they have paired, jointed (arthros) legs (podos). Arthropods are invertebrates, which means they do not have a backbone. Instead, they have a hard outer covering, known as an exoskeleton or cuticle, made from chitlin. Arthropods range in size from microscopic to a few inches long. As they outgrow their exoskeleton, it is shed by molting.
Soil arthropod species
There are four types of arthropods with many familiar members:
Arthropods are commonly grouped according to their feeding habits. There are fungal-feeders, herbivores, predators, and shredders.
Arthropods that feed on fungi and bacteria include silverfish and springtails, and a few mite species. As they feed, they scrape the fungi and bacteria from the surface of plant roots. As these microbes graze and poop, they make many mineralized nutrients available to plants. Fungal feeding arthropods and the fungi they feed on tend to keep each others' populations in check.
Cicadas, mole crickets, root maggots (anthomyiid flies), rootworms, and symphylans (garden centipedes), feed on plant roots and can become major pests.
Predatory arthropods can be generalists or specialists, eating many types of prey, or only one. Ants, centipedes, ground beetles, pseudoscorpions, rove beetles, scorpions, skunk spiders, spiders, and some mites can be predators, feeding on nematodes, springtails, other mites, and insect larvae.
Shredders tend to be larger and may be seen on the soil surface. They feed on decomposing plant material and the fungi and bacteria growing on those dead plants. As they feed, they shred the plant material, increasing its surface area and speeding its decomposition. This group includes millipedes, roaches, sowbugs, termites, and some mite species. When dead plant material is not available, shredders can become pesky root-eaters.
As arthropods feed and burrow, they provide many benefits to soil health. Moving through the soil, they aerate and gently churn it, improving porosity, water infiltration rates, and bulk density. As they feed, they shred organic matter, speeding decomposition. And when they excrete waste products, they release mineralized plant nutrients and enhance soil aggregation because their waste is coated with mucus. Their feeding also curbs the populations of other soil organisms and opens the way for a wider variety of other, smaller decomposers.
Arthropods often carry around beneficial microbes, in a method known as phoresy, on their exoskeletons and in their gut. These microbes end up helping decompose far more organic matter than they might have, left to their only very tiny devices.
You can help beneficial soil arthropods in your garden by avoiding the use of broad-spectrum pesticides, employing no-dig gardening methods, and installing a wide variety of plant species. Since most soil arthropods live in the top 3” of the soil, the use of stepping stones, stumperies, rain gardens, and water features will all help provide the food, shelter, moisture, and biodiversity needed for healthy arthropod populations.
Let’s us know what you find in the Comments!
Crusting is a type of soil compaction.
When we say soil is compacted, we are referring to all of it. When compaction occurs below the soil surface, it is called hardpan. When the problem is at the surface, we call it crusting.
Healthy soil is lumpy. These lumps are called soil aggregates. Soil aggregates are made up of different sized minerals, bits of organic matter, and spaces, called macropores and micropores. Those spaces are critical to soil and plant health, as they provide pathways for air, water, and roots.
When surface aggregates are broken into smaller and smaller bits, the soil particles shift around, dry out, and realign into a smooth, plate-like structure, called a crust. As that crust dries out even further, cracks commonly appear. These cracks are nearly always at 120° or 90° angles.
Types of crusting
Soil crusting can be classified as chemical, biological, or physical. Chemical crusts are the result of salt or other mineral deposits on the surface that commonly occur in arid regions. Biological crusts are generally caused by algal deposits left behind from slow-draining ponds and they tend to be lumpier than other soil crusts.
Physical crusts may be structural or depositional. Depositional crusts are the result of fine soil particles carried in runoff being deposited over an area. Structural physical crusts are more likely to occur in the home garden. Crusting is particularly common in clay soils because the particles are already so tiny. Flat clay particles average less than 2 μm and are attracted to one another by electrostatic forces. Silt is boxier and 2 to 50 μm, while sand particles are larger than 50 μm. Neither silt or sand particles are attracted to one another electrically. If your clay soil contains high levels of magnesium and/or sodium, the odds of soil crusting are even higher. [What does your soil test say?]
What causes structural crusting?
Rototilling and rain are the two most common causes of crusting. Frequent digging or rototilling disrupts microorganism populations and breaks up soil aggregates. Those aggregates are needed to allow air and water to move through the soil. Soil microorganisms are partly responsible for maintaining those soil aggregates and for feeding many of your plants.
As heavy rain (or sprinkler water) falls, each drop hits the topsoil and breaks up soil aggregates into smaller and smaller particles. These smaller particles are more prone to compaction and surface crusting.
Problems with crusting
Compacted soil makes it difficult for water, air, and roots to move through. It also slows soil gas exchanges and drainage. Crusty soil slows water infiltration and makes life very difficult for germinating seeds and young seedlings. In fact, crusting can stop germinating seeds from getting to sunlight altogether. Crusting also increases the chances of runoff and urban drool. If the soil below has reached its watering holding capacity, crusting can prevent evaporation, causing roots, worms, insects, and microbes to drown.
Soil crusts are rather fragile. As they are damaged, they tend to break apart, allowing the soil to erode very quickly. [My Burner readers know what I mean. Pre-event, the Black Rock Desert crust is firm and dust levels are relatively low. As traffic picks up, the surface crust is damaged and dust storms can become rather impressive. For you non-Burners, just think of the Dust Bowl of the 1930s.]
Correcting crusty soil
Patches of crusting can be corrected by lightly breaking up the soil surface and planting cover crops, green manure crops, or cereal grains. You can also top dress the area with aged compost or manure, or reduce damage by mulching.
How to prevent crusting
Rather than rototilling or digging, use mulch to encourage worms and soil microorganisms to do the work for you. Also, after harvesting an area, cover it with straw, mulch, or a fast-growing cover crop to absorb rain droplets and prevent erosion and compaction.
Why do some fruits continue ripening after being harvested, while others do not? It all depends on whether or not they are climacteric.
Ripening is a highly complex developmental process. It is largely dictated by plant genetics and partially affected by climate. As fruits ripen, distasteful flavors are broken down, sugar levels and other pleasant flavors increase, pectins soften, acid and carbohydrate levels change, colors change, and a lovely aroma is released. One of the most important players in the ripening process is ethylene gas.
Ethylene gas is a plant hormone produced by nearly all fruits. It is used in response to injury and to ripen some fruits. Climacteric fruits have very sensitive ethylene gas receptors. It doesn’t matter whose ethylene gas it is. Once these receptors are triggered, a domino effect of ripening is activated: respiration and ethylene gas production spike, whether or not they are still attached to the parent plant. Increased respiration and ethylene gas drive the ripening process in climacteric fruits.
Ethylene gas is the reason why bananas or apples stored near other climacteric fruits will cause them to ripen faster. It is also why bananas are now sold with plastic or wax over the stem ends - to reduce ethylene gas emissions.
Non-climacteric fruits also produce ethylene gas, but at much smaller rates. These fruits rely on other methods of ripening. This is a new area of study and very little is known at this time except that auxins and abscisic acid are believed to play critical roles.
Which fruits are climacteric?
Apples, apricots, avocados, bananas, blueberries, cantaloupes, figs, kiwifruit, mangos, nectarines, papayas, peaches, pears, pineapple guava, plums, tomatoes, and some hot peppers are climacteric. This means they can be removed from their parent plant and will continue to ripen.
Blackberries and raspberries, cherries, citrus, cucumbers, eggplants, grapes, melons, peppers, pineapples, pomegranates, pumpkins, squashes, strawberries, and watermelons are not climacteric and must be left where they are until they have ripened fully. If these fruits are harvested before they are ripe, put them in the compost pile or feed them to your chickens because they will never ripen. There are some non-climacteric apricots and melons, while some varieties of grapes and strawberries, while not climacteric, do have active ethylene gas receptors.
Whether a fruit is climacteric or not, leaving it on the parent plant for as long as possible is the only way to get the best flavor and nutritional value.
After the climacteric stage has been reached, plant respiration returns to normal or below normal and fruits become far more susceptible to fungal infections. In other words, after climacteric (and non- climacteric) fruits have reached their peak of flavor and sweetness, they start to rot.
Now you know.
Cedar chests repel moths. Adding pencil shavings to potted plants repels or kills insect pests, such as ants, carpet beetles, cockroaches, fleas, mosquitos, moths, spiders, and termites. At least, that’s what they say.
Can we really use cedar as an insect repellent? It sounds (and smells) so nice…
Let’s start by learning a little more about what we mean when we use the word cedar.
Cedar is a conifer. The word ‘cedar’ refers to any of five Cedrus trees, all of which produce oils said to repel moths whose larvae eat fabrics, such as wool. These are ‘true cedars’, none of which are native to North America. Other trees lumped together with Cedrus are the Thuja, or cypress trees, three of which are native, and a few juniper trees. Cedar, cypress, and some junipers do contain chemicals, known as terpenoids, which are used to protect themselves against insect pests. The terpenoids used by cedar and cypress are not the same, however. Cedars use terpenoids called sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while cypress and juniper use something called thujone. Thujone is also found in common sage, some mint species, mugwort, oregano, tansy, and wormwood. In both cases, some insects are repelled while others are not.
Insects and cedarwood oil
Your grandmother was right about her cedarwood hope chest - it really does repel clothes-eating moths. It does nothing, however, against fleas, mosquitos, spiders, and most ants. In its defense, if you have ordorous or Argentine ants, cedarwood oil will help keep them away. It will also repel or kill carpet beetles, cockroaches, and termites, none of which are a threat to your plants.
Dangers of cedarwood
Before you jump on the cedarwood oil bandwagon, however, you need to know that there is a downside. Research has shown that, while exposure to cedar wood oils can interrupt the reproductive and developmental cycles of peanut trash bugs, Indian meal moths, and forage mites, prolonged exposure to these oils increases your chances of getting cancer.
Strangely enough, European turnip moth larvae love eating cedar. Isn’t life weird?
Soil organic matter (SOM) is a category found in soil test results and it is critical for good soil health.
Soil organic matter levels can range from practically nothing to as much as 90%. Deserts are at the low end of the scale, while low lying, wet areas (think peat bogs) are at the high end. Most topsoils range from 1% to 6% soil organic matter. Soils containing 12% to 18% organic matter are called histosols. Histosols tend to be acidic, low in nutrients, and have poor drainage.
Components of soil organic matter
Soil is made up of minerals (45-49%), water (25%), air (25%), and things that were or are alive. These lifeforms can be insects, plants or animals, in various stages of living or decomposing, microbes, and any substances created by those living things. These lifeforms, both alive and dead, and their secretions and exudates, are what make up soil organic matter.
Soil organic matter is approximately 5% living things, 10% fresh residue, 33-55% stabilized organic matter, and 33-50% decomposing organic material.
Organic matter and soil health
Maintaining healthy soil is a big part of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices that allow us to grow plants with a minimum of chemical interventions. Healthy levels of soil organic matter provide biological, physical, and chemical benefits to your soil. Sufficient soil organic matter improves soil structure and water retention and infiltration. It also increases soil aggregation, or clumping, which increases the number of macropores and micropores through which water, air and roots can move. Organic matter improves soil biodiversity, and the absorption and retention of pollutants, while reducing soil compaction, crusting, and urban drool. Organic matter also creates a buffer against changes in soil pH.
Organic matter and plant health
As plants, animals, and insects decompose, a variety of compounds become available to plants, increasing soil fertility and nutrient cycling and storage. These compounds include carbohydrates (sugars and starches), fats, lignin, proteins, and charcoal. As these compounds are broken down further, or mineralized, they increase your soil’s cation exchange capacity. This means plants are better able to absorb atoms and molecules of plant food through root hairs. Insufficient soil organic matter can cause mottling and other signs of nutrient deficiency.
Soil organic matter also acts as a carbon sink, reducing the amount of carbon in our atmosphere. As a major player in the carbon cycle, soil organic matter is believed to hold 58% of the Earth’s carbon. We can help keep it there (and out of our air) with no-dig gardening and cover crops.
How to increase soil organic matter
Before increasing anything in your soil, send a sample to a lab for testing. There is no other way of knowing what, exactly, is present without a soil test. It would be rare for most soils to have a problem with increasing organic matter levels, but it’s better to be safe than sorry. Plus, then you’ll have all that other great information!
You can increase organic matter levels in your soil with these tips:
Remember, soil organics matter!
Very often, you can propagate new plants from old ones by taking a piece of the parent plant and giving it a warm, moist place to grow. This works because plants have undifferentiated cells that can become any part of the plant. Given the right conditions, meristem tissue that was going to become stem or leaf can develop into roots instead. Vegetative propagation can take several forms.
Many houseplants are propagated by cutting off a stem and sticking it in water until roots appear. Succulents are particularly well suited to propagation by cuttings. Simply break off a leaf and stick it into some soil. Cuttings can be taken from leaves, stems, and roots and coaxed into producing new plants with varying degrees of success. Some plants root faster and more easily than others. Generally speaking, woody stems are more difficult to propagate with cuttings than soft-stemmed plants.
Many bulbs and perennial plants benefit from being divided every few years. This happens because the root system can become overcrowded. Artichokes, chrysanthemum, germander, saffron crocus, and yarrow often benefit from being divided. If you dig up one of these plants, you can pull or cut them into smaller portions and replant elsewhere. Division is normally done in autumn, unless it is an autumn-blooming plant, such as saffron crocus, in which case division is performed in spring. Autumn temperatures give plants time to recover and develop new root systems.
Strawberry runners are an example of layering. Layering is a method in which portions of a plant are bent to the ground and covered with soil while still attached to the parent plant. The parent plant provides water and nutrients needed by the daughter plant until roots emerge from the soil-covered nodes. Once the clone is established, it can be separated from the parent plant. In many cases of layering, the section of the plant touching the soil is purposely wounded to stimulate rooting. There are six types of layering: air, simple, compound, tip, and trench methods.
Scions are young twigs cut from parent plants, usually trees, which are then grafted onto other trees. The meristem tissue found within the scion dictates what sort of blossoms and fruit will be produced. Scions are what make “fruit cocktail” trees possible. These are trees that produce a variety of fruits. You can have a single citrus tree that produces Valencia and Navel oranges, kumquats, grapefruits, and tangerines, or you can have a stone fruit tree that produces peaches, nectarines, apricots, and almonds.
Suckers and root sprouts
Suckers are shoots that occur at the base of a tree or shrub. Root sprouts come up from the root system, usually at a distance from the parent plant. Suckers, also known as basal shoots, and root sprouts can be removed from mature plants and encouraged to take root elsewhere. To do this, you will need to carefully remove them from the parent plant and place them in moist soil.
What about GMOs?
Propagation generally refers to breeding or reproducing plants by natural processes from parent stock. How you define natural processes may alter how you feel about genetic modification. Before digging in your heels, you need to know that plants, bacteria, and fungi have been modifying genetic material [their own and that of other living things] long before we got started in the lab. For better or worse, genetic modification has a role in modern plant propagation. For one thing, without genetic modification, there would be no seedless watermelons. Seedless watermelons happen because plant breeders do two things:
The resulting offspring have 33 chromosome and are highly unlikely to have viable seeds. That’s why you still get an occasional seed in your seedless watermelon.
Rather than going to the store to buy new plants, you can often propagate your own for free using these methods.
Your tree may house a tiny, fungi-farming beetle called the polyphagous shot hole borer, but I hope not.
Native to southeast Asia, these invasive beetles are threatening trees in Israel and California with Fusarium dieback. Fusarium dieback is a fungal disease that blocks the flow of water and nutrients through a tree’s vascular system. And polyphagous shot hole beetles actively farm those particular fungi. We will get to that in a minute.
Polyphagous shot hole borer identification
Polyphagous shot hole borers (Euwallacea fornicatus) are smaller than a sesame seed. You could fit 6-10 females, end-to-end, across a dime. Females are black and males are brown and wingless, but you will probably never see a male. Sightings are rare and no wonder. Males stay in the galleries and you could fit 12-18 of them across the face of a dime.
Polyphagous shot hole borers look identical to another invasive borer called the Kuroshio shot hole borer, or tea shot hole borer (Euwallacea fornicatus). The tea shot hole borer prefers tea plants in Sri Lanka, while the polyphagous shot hole borer appears to have a voracious appetite for over 110 tree species. [The word polyphagous means eats many things.]
Host trees and signs of infestation
Traditionally, polyphagous shot hole borers tended to only infest dead or dying trees. Having been accidentally introduced to new regions, these pests have developed a taste for healthy trees. Once trees are infected, they can die. Host trees include:
External symptoms of infestation often look innocuous. Slightly weepy, small damaged areas of the bark, the presence of white frass, maybe a little sawdust or sugar volcano action is all you can see from the outside. If you look very closely, you may see several exit holes, about the size of the tip of a ballpoint pen. The inside of an affected tree is something else entirely.
Polyphagous shot hole borers chew holes that penetrate 1/2” to 1-1/2” into the wood. Then they start burrowing, creating galleries. Black flecks and tunnels can be seen throughout an infested tree. These black areas indicate where Fusarium fungi are being farmed.
Polyphagous shot hole borer as farmers
Polyphagous shot hole borers are a type of ambrosia beetle. Rather than feeding on bark or wood or sap, ambrosia beetles eat fungi that they grow for themselves. Polyphagous shot hole borers have tiny pockets on their exoskeleton. In these pockets, they carry spores of the Fusarium euwallaceae fungi. After burrowing into a tree, the borer starts growing these fungi along the walls of the burrowed galleries. The fungi provide adult and larval forms of polyphagous shot hole borers with food in a protected environment and the borers carry the fungi to new trees. It's a win-win situation for them. The problem is, this fungi causes Fusarium dieback. Fusarium dieback causes branch dieback, canopy loss, and it can kill trees.
Polyphagous shot hole borer management
Yellow sticky cards, purple prism traps, and multiple funnel traps have been used with some success. Because polyphagous shot hole borers have no natural enemies here in California, and because they live inside the tree, safe from insecticides, prevention is worth the effort.
Polyphagous shot hole borers are most commonly spread on firewood. If infested trees are chipped into mulch, the borers can catch a ride to your trees, so always inspect wood chips before accepting them. Wood chips cut into pieces smaller than 1” are generally considered safe because the borers get chopped up too. Personally, if I saw black galleries, I would refuse delivery just in case.
If you suspect polyphagous shot hole borers have found your trees, please contact your local County Extension Office right away.
Conks are woody, shelf-like structures produced by some fungi. These fruiting bodies are often seen on trees and can indicate fungal diseases, such as canker rot or butt rot.
Conks are the reproductive form of a large group of fungi known as polypores. Polypores are found in the bark, trunks, and branches of trees, though some are in the soil. Polypores are the primary players in wood decomposition, so their presence often indicates decay. Polypores are important in nutrient cycling, so they aren’t all bad. This group is large and diverse, but they all have conks in common.
The conk clan
This group is defined by how they grow rather than genetics, so it is very diverse. The most common types of conks include:
Also known as bracket fungi, or shelf fungi, this group (Basidiomycota) produces circular, shelf-shaped fruiting bodies that can appear in rows, columns, or singly. Basidiomycetes are the only fungi known to break down lignin. Lignin is what makes trees rigid. The disease that accomplishes this feat is known as white rot.
Some conks are annuals while others are perennials, Some conks can live for 80 years or more. In either case, they tend to be leathery, sturdy growths. These growths produce spores, called basidiospores, in pores found on the underside of the conk.
Conks grow directly out of the wood on which the fungi feed. If you were to cut one open and look at it closely, you would see two layers: a tube layer and a supporting layer. The tubes are honeycomb-like structures lined with a spore-forming surface called the hymenium. The supporting structure creates the shelf and its attachment to the tree.
The problem with conks is that their presence indicates that fungi have taken up residence in your tree. If your tree has conks, the first step is identifying the type. Some fungi are worse than others.
Preventing fungal conks
The fungi that produce conks enter trees through mechanical wounds, damaged roots, broken or rubbing branches, frost cracks, sunburned bark, and improper pruning cuts. Fungal spores travel on the wind, rain, and on birds and insects, so keeping your tree’s protective outer layer intact is the best prevention. The following tips should help with that:
If you have a tree with conks, you should probably contact a certified arborist. They can inspect the tree for structural integrity and to determine the extent of the infection.
Conks may look cool, but you don’t want them on your trees.
Can you see a crack in the trunk or branches of your tree? It may be canker rot.
Canker rot is a collection of fungal diseases that eat away at the interior of tree trunks and branches, weakening the tree and setting the stage for other pests and diseases. Canker rots can also girdle your tree and kill it. While most commonly seen in ornamental trees, canker rot can occur in apple and other fruit and nut trees.
Canker rot identification
Cankers are open wounds or lesions. Cankers can be a few inches long and wide or several feet long, depending on the fungal species. The bark surrounding these cankers dies, becoming discolored, often lighter or orangish. And it is tightly bonded to the canker. After a year or two, the dead inner bark turns black and stringy. It may look like a sooty bark canker. But canker rot can also have lens-shaped lighter areas in the bark. Unlike other canker diseases, canker rot affects both bark and inner tissue.
Canker rots can also cause swelling, sunken areas, gnarled bark, and conks. Conks are shelf-shaped fungal fruiting bodies. After spores are released, the conk will dry out and darken. It may remain on the tree or fall off.
If you were to see inside your tree, you would see that the heartwood and sapwood have become discolored. Instead of warm, rich yellowish-browns of healthy wood, you would see gray, orange, or even pink-tinged wood, often extending three or more feet beyond the canker.
Canker rot lifecycle
The fungi responsible for canker rot usually enter trees through pruning cuts and wounds. Fungi attach to the wood and then move to the cambium to access the water and nutrients flowing through the vascular bundle. The fungi also move to the bark, where they eject spores carried by wind to nearby trees.
How to control canker rot
As always, healthy trees are better able to protect themselves. So, select species suitable to your microclimate, plant them at the proper depth, irrigate and fertilize your trees properly, and monitor for signs of problems. Other actions you can take to reduce the chance to canker rot occurring in your trees include:
Trees with canker rot may fall over at any time. Large trees weigh several tons and can be extremely dangerous. If you suspect canker rot, call a licensed arborist right away.
Root sprouts appear to be random baby trees or shrubs that keep popping up in your landscape. Getting rid of them can be difficult.
Many plants pass on their genetic information through seeds. Seeds are spread by birds, the wind, people, and herbivores. Plants can also propagate themselves vegetatively using suckers, adventitious shoots and root sprouts. These growths emerge from adventitious buds, which occur close to the vascular bundle, where they will have easy access to water and nutrients. The different names refer to where they occur. Suckers, also known as basal shoots, occur at the base of a tree or shrub. Adventitious shoots can form on stem internodes, leaves, roots, or callus. Root sprouts emerge from the root system.
Root sprout growth
Root sprouts often grow out of adventitious buds found on a tree’s extensive root system. Root sprouts are clones of the parent plant.They can be found a significant distance from the parent tree. Root sprouts can also grow from the roots of a tree that has fallen or been cut down. Apple, cherry, and guava are especially prone to root sprouts.
If a plant produces root sprouts, it is said to be surculose.
Root sprouts can be used to propagate new plants. They also use up a plant’s energy stores and can make a mess of your lawn or landscape. They are also responsible for one of the world’s biggest and oldest life forms.
The world’s largest life form
Tree roots spread. Then they can send up new root sprouts, which then create more roots and more root shoots. Given enough time and space, this process can create something really HUGE! In fact, root shoots are responsible for one of the world’s largest and probably oldest life forms: the singular root system of a grove of male quaking aspen found in Utah. Known as Pando, this root system covers 106 acres, weighs approximately 13 million tons, and is believed to be 80,000 years old. Sadly, Pando, is dying. Pando’s decline is believed to be a combined result of drought, grazing, and fire suppression. The U.S. Forest Service and private groups are trying to save it, but repeatedly killing off the root shoots with grazing (or hand pruners) does take its toll.
Why do trees produce root sprouts?
Some trees are more likely than others to produce root sprouts. In some cases, it is simply the tree’s normal method of propagation. Root sprouts can also be a sign that a tree or shrub is stressed. That stress can take many forms:
What can you do about root sprouts?
First, keep your tree as healthy as possible. Water it, feed it, protect it from lawn competition, weedwackers, and car doors. Mulch around but not touching the tree. Do a little research to find out what type of tree you are dealing with and what its needs are, and provide for those needs. This will reduce the tree’s drive to reproduce in this way.
If you spray herbicides on a root sprout, you will be poisoning the parent plant as well. Instead, you can kill the individual buds by tearing the new growth off, as close to the root as possible. Of course, this may require some soil removal. If you can tear the root sprout off of the root, you are likely to damage or kill that particular bud. If there is a section of root that continually puts out unwanted root sprouts, you can dig up the offending root and severe it from the tree or shrub. If all of that sounds like more work than it is worth, simply snip them off at soil level each time you see them.
There are also products available that you can spray on root sprouts, but I do not use them. Reviews appear to be highly mixed and applying just a little bit too much can seriously damage the tree or shrub those root sprouts came from. Other people swear by them. It's your call.
If you are really sick of all the root sprouts in your lawn, contact a licensed arborist. They can safely apply a growth inhibitor.
Prune limb borers can damage stone fruit trees, such as almond, apricot, cherry, nectarine, and peach, as well as oak. Gumming and reddish orange frass are common signs of prune limb borer infestation.
Prune limb borers (Bondia comonana) are not as common as American plum borers, but it is a good idea to know what to look for, just in case.
Prune limb borer description
Prune limb borer moths are not very large. They have a 3/4” wingspan. The forewings are gray with black and brown markings. Like many grubs, prune limb borer larvae are dull white or pinkish with a large, dark head. They are usually 1” long.
Prune limb borer lifecycle
Prune limb borer larvae overwinter inside your trees in cocoons. In spring, adult moths emerge and mate. Female prune limb borers lay their eggs on callus tissue, where narrow crotches between branches create wrinkled bark, near graft unions, and on crown galls. Eggs are also laid in wounds from pruning, tree supports, or poorly aimed weedwackers. There can be as many as four generations each year.
Prune limb borer damage
It is prune limb borer larvae that do all the damage. As soon as eggs hatch, larvae begin burrowing into the host tree. Erratic tunnels between the bark and cambium layer interrupt the flow of water and nutrients and weaken the tree structurally. Heavy infestations can weaken scaffold branches, making them likely to break off in strong winds and when supporting heavy crop loads.
Prune limb borer management
Mature, healthy trees can often withstand a prune limb borer or two, but young trees can be killed by heavy infestations. Like other borers, these pests are easier to prevent than control. Inside the tree, they are safe from predators and pesticides. Use these tips to prevent prune limb borers from taking up residence in your trees:
Over-the-counter pesticides and insecticides are not effective against prune borers. If you have a badly infested tree, it may be worthwhile to hire a professional to apply a residual, contact insecticide.
We all know what tree branches are, but what are scaffold branches and why are they important?
What are scaffold branches?
Trees have an underground root system, a trunk, primary branches, secondary branches, and so on. Both above and below ground, the fractal splitting of growth creates ever-smaller and more delicate parts. Twigs emerge from lateral branches and lateral branches grow out of primary scaffold branches. Scaffold branches are the heaviest limbs which create the structure of a tree’s canopy, or silhouette.
Scaffold branches and pruning
Pruning and tree training are the best way to ensure your trees are healthy, safe, and productive. Before putting your tree saw to work, you need to know about scaffold branches.
Mature scaffold branches are rarely pruned or removed, unless they are severely damaged or diseased, as they provide the overall structure of a tree’s shape. Young trees, however, must be trained into forms that allow for proper sun exposure and air flow while maintaining branches that are less likely to break once burdened with lateral branches, twigs, leaves, and heavy fruit crops.
The angle at which branches attach to one another, known as the angle of attachment or the branch axil, determines the strength of that connection. Angles of attachment that are too narrow become areas of weakness later on. These V-shaped crotches also provide overwintering sites for American plum borers, prune limb borers, and many other pests. Branch axils of 30° or more generally result in sturdy attachments that can withstand strong winds and heavy fruit or nut crops. Downward hanging branches are highly prone to breakage. The best branch axils are 45° to 60° angles.
Selecting scaffold branches
When training young trees, you want scaffold branches that are appropriate to the species, spaced properly, and at good angles. You should avoid having more than two scaffold branches at the same distance from the ground. Scaffold branches should be at least 8” to 16” apart, vertically. Also, select scaffold branches that are positioned radially around the trunk so that they are not growing directly above or below each other.
As you train your tree, remember to avoid cutting the branch collar and do not use sealants. Sealants often trap moisture against the wound and create the perfect environment for rot. Your tree knows how to heal itself and will form callus tissue over and around the wound.
Take a look at the scaffold branches on your trees. Are they strong and healthy or do you need to do some re-training this dormant season?
Vein clearing is nearly always a sign of viral disease. It can also indicate herbicide poisoning and bacterial or fungal infection.
Normal, healthy leaf veins are green or white and opaque. In the case of disease or overspray, those veins may become pale yellow or so light they are nearly translucent. It is a form of chlorosis..
Viral diseases and vein clearing
Viral diseases such as cucumber vein yellowing, papaya ringspot, and turnip vein clearing, often appear initially as lighter-colored veins. Cucumber green mottle, pea seed-borne and squash mosaics can exhibit vein clearing.
Other diseases and vein clearing
Fungal diseases, such as Fusarium wilt, occasionally cause vein clearing. Bacterial wilts, such as Verticillium wilt, may also exhibit vein clearing during the initial stages of infection. In bacterial wilts, the xylem walls either dissolve or rupture, releasing fluids into nearby cells and leaving the veins looking translucent.
Vein clearing and overspray
Vein clearing is also a symptom of chemical overspray. Overspray occurs when herbicides and other chemicals drift on a breeze to unintended plants. After landing on a plant, the herbicide is absorbed and transported throughout the plant in the xylem. Older leaves generally exhibit damage to margins (edges) and interveinal (between vein) areas. Younger leaves respond differently, showing chlorosis of the veins, especially the midrib.
Vein clearing can also be a phytotoxic symptom. Phytotoxic means something is poisonous to plants. We apply insecticides, oils, or other treatments with the best intention. But extreme sunlight, high temperatures, and other factors can turn these treatments into toxins, causing symptoms such as vein clearing, wilting, leaf loss, or flower drop.
Cherry vein clearing, for example, is believed to be a genetic mutation spread by grafting affected scions onto healthy wood. Some researchers believe this mutation is due to a boron deficiency in the soil, but no one is sure yet.
In some cases, vein clearing is a short-lived symptom as more disease-specific symptoms appear. These symptoms may include dwarfing, puckered leaves, variegated yellow and green on leaves, and vein banding. Vein banding is similar to vein clearing except that you can see bands of translucent and opaque green, yellow, or white.
Clearwing moths are a family of pests that attack many fruits trees, as well as currants and gooseberries. These pests are often mistaken for burly wasps.
There are several different clearwing moth pests and they attack a wide variety of ornamentals and edibles. They include:
Clearwing moth identification and lifecycle
One of the most obvious ways to identify adult clearwing moths is to look at their wings - they are clear. Mostly, anyway. Adults only live for one week, so you don’t get many chances to see them. Front wings tend to be narrow and rear wings are stubbier and wider. Their yellow and black bodies look similar to yellowjackets. This mimicry continues with a behavior commonly seen in wasps, in which both species will periodically run while fluttering their wings. Unlike wasps, clearwing moth adults can also be red, orange, or even dark blue, depending on the species.
As soon as females emerge from their pupal cases, they emit pheromones to attract males. After mating, females lay tiny pale pink to reddish eggs in rough areas of the bark, in wounds, and in cracks and crevices created where branches and twigs fork. One to four weeks later, larvae emerge and the damage begins. Clearwing larvae are 1” to 1-1/2” long, with white to pink bodies and dark heads. They look very similar to American plum borer larvae. Larvae will feed heavily until they are ready to pupate.
Most clearwing moths pupate under bark. The peachtree borer pupates in the soil. Clearwing pupal cases also look a lot like American plum borer pupae, as well as carpenterworm pupae. American plum borers (Euzophera semifuneralis) tend to be found where main scaffold branches join the trunks of ash, olive, and sycamore trees. These pupal cases are thin-walled and brown, and they look very similar to those of bark beetles, longhorned beetles, roundheaded wood borers, flatheaded wood borers, and metallic wood borers. These pupal cases are often found, after they have been vacated, protruding from bark or on the ground under a tree.
Basically, anything burrowing in your trees is bad news.
Damage caused by clearwing moths
Clearwing moth larvae start burrowing into bark, cambium or heartwood of their host tree as soon as they hatch. This burrowing creates galleries that weaken the tree and make it more susceptible to other pests and diseases. It also interrupts the flow of water and nutrients throughout the vascular tissues. Branch die off can also occur. All this burrowing can make bark look gnarled.
Where these galleries occur can help you identify the species. Peachtree borer larvae are most commonly found within a few inches of the soil. Ash borer larvae prefer being 5 to 10 feet up.
In some cases, no controls are needed. Sycamore borers and western poplar clearwings apparently don’t do enough harm to require management. The other species, however, can serious harm your trees.
Since healthy trees are better able to withstand attack, proper feeding and irrigation go a long way toward minimizing clearwing damage. Whitewashing tree trunks and exposed branches reduces sunburn injury. If your soil is compacted, apply a thick layer of mulch or install a ground cover to help aerate the soil. This will help keep your trees healthier, just make sure the mulch or ground cover are kept a few inches away from the trunk to prevent fungal disease. Also, avoid injuring trees with lawn mowers, weed wackers, and other landscape equipment and tools, and remove tree stakes as soon as they are no longer needed.
Pheromone lures can be used to monitor for these pests. Just keep in mind that using pheromone lures attracts pests. These lures interfere with mating, so they can reduce clearwing populations, but this method requires an intensive, ongoing program of pheromone use. It’s probably not worth the effort for backyard trees. You can also buy pheromone traps for peachtree borers and ash borers. If using pheromone traps, be sure to follow the manufacturer’s directions exactly.
Monitoring trees every week for signs of burrowing and pupal cases is an easy way to protect your trees. You may see partially emerged pupae, which can be crushed or skewered with a piece of wire. Gumming around the base of the tree may also indicate peachtree borers.
Beneficial insects, such as braconid wasps, will kill or parasitize clearwing moths and their larvae, so avoid using broad spectrum pesticides and insecticides. Also, you can buy certain nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae) to kill peachtree borer, redbelted clearwing, sycamore borer, and western poplar clearwing. Again, follow the directions exactly for the best results.
If a truly valuable tree has a bad clearwing infestation, you should call a licensed pest control applicator. They have access to chemicals that you do not. Most over-the-counter clearwing controls are not effective.
All living things (as far as we know) contain carbon. Your body is 18% carbon. A plant is 50% carbon. The carbon cycle is a series of events that make life possible for us and our garden plants.
What is carbon?
Carbon (C) is an element. For the most part, the amount of carbon in Earth’s sphere of existence is relatively constant. But carbon can take several forms. The graphite in your pencil is an example of carbon. Apply enough heat and pressure and that pencil lead can and will turn into a diamond. In most cases, carbon pairs up with other elements to form new materials, such as amino acids, fats, and carbohydrates. It can also form potassium bicarbonate, a material used to neutralize acidic soil. Very often, carbon pairs with oxygen to form carbon dioxide
Carbon cycle components
Carbon can be found everywhere on, in, and around the Earth. The way carbon moves from place to place, and from form to form, is what makes up the carbon cycle. The components of the carbon cycle are:
Carbon moves through these changes because of biological, chemical, geological, and physical processes.
The carbon cycle in your garden
The same processes occur in your garden, with similar results. Start with your soil. Soil is a living, breathing complex of minerals, organic matter, insects, microorganisms, worms, and more. Microorganisms break down complex molecules into smaller bits, separating carbon from whatever it happens to be bound to and making it and other minerals available to plant roots as food.
You plant a seed and water it. The seed coat softens, a first root, or radicle, emerges and starts absorbing carbon and other minerals. The carbon then becomes part of the plant. The plant matures and produces fruit or other edible parts, which we harvest and eat. The carbon in those parts then becomes part of us. The parts we don’t eat are added to the compost pile, where the carbon attaches itself to other minerals or is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.
The sun shines down on Earth’s oceans, waterways, and soil causing evaporation. That moisture condenses and rain occurs, converting any carbon dioxide in the atmosphere into carbonic acid. This form of carbon falls to Earth, enters the soil, and hydrates any unharvested plants. Excess rainwater leaches into ground water where it ultimately makes its way to oceans. The sun’s heat causes more evaporation, water rises into the atmosphere, more rain, and so on.
How do plants use carbon?
You may have heard that plants take carbon dioxide in and release oxygen during the day, and that that process switches at night. The truth is, carbon dioxide is only taken in, and oxygen is only released back into the environment, while photosynthesis is actively taking place. The act of photosynthesis spilts the carbon dioxide molecule into oxygen and carbon. The carbon is used as a building material, much the way our bodies use carbohydrates. [Carbohydrates are made out of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.]
Plants also absorb carbon from the soil, but there has to be the right balance of nitrogen available for plants to use the carbon they need. Nitrogen is the steak and salad equivalent of the human diet. This balance is called the carbon-to-nitrogen, or C:N, ratio. Microorganisms that break down minerals and organic matter into plant-sized bites prefer a C:N ratio of 24:1 to 30:1. If there is too much, or not enough, carbon or nitrogen in the soil, plants will suffer.
Carbon cycling and tap water
Most soils contain a variety of carbon compounds and this can be a problem if your tap/irrigation water is highly alkaline. The chemical reactions that occur between carbonate and bicarbonate ions and alkaline water can make calcium and magnesium less soluble, and harder for plants to absorb. These chemical transformation between these molecules also tends to leave salts behind. Whenever possible, irrigate your garden with rain water.
As we burn fossil fuels and seal the Earth’s surface with concrete, we release an awful lot of carbon into the atmosphere and make it harder for carbon to be absorbed into the soil. Carbon in the atmosphere joins with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide (and methane) absorb heat and bounce it back to Earth. This can help prevent another Ice Age and it can lead to global warming, more destructive storms, desertification, rising sea levels, and a harder time for us and our plants.
Removing carbon from the atmosphere is called carbon sequestering. Naturally, carbon is held in plants and soil. When plants are composted or decompose, some of the carbon they contain is returned to the atmosphere and some enters the biosphere, oceans, and geosphere.
As we disturb the Earth’s surface, we break the bonds that hold carbon in place. Instead of plowing or rototilling, you can reduce the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere by practicing no-dig gardening. [It’s easier on your back, too.]
Carbon is sequestered into the soil by plant roots. Plant roots secrete carbon in something called exudates. Root exudates feed beneficial bacteria and fungi in the soil which then help feed your plants. These root exudates also promote soil health and reduce erosion.
There are many ways that you can reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere:
Finally, growing your own food is one of the easiest ways to reduce the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere. Not only does it reduce the demand for highly tilled fields around the globe, it reduces the number of trucks, ships, farming machinery, and storage facilities needed to fill your larder. Just go outside and pick what you need!
Whether you call them chickpeas, Bengal grams, Egyptian peas, or garbanzo beans, you definitely do not want them infected with this fungal disease. Ascochyta [ask-uh-SHOO-tuh] blight, also known as blackspot, is a major disease of garbanzo beans.
Not to be confused with the other black spot (Diplocarpon rosae), which primarily affects leaves, Ascochyta blight can infect any aboveground portion of your chickpea plants, as well as your lawn. Lawns infected with Ascochyta blight suddenly develop brown patches of dead-looking grass. Ascochyta blight is caused by Ascochyta rabiei (formerly known as Phoma rabiei).
Ascochyta blight symptoms
Brown lesions that start at the base of seedlings may start out looking like damping-off disease, but these lesions continue to move up the plant, eventually affecting everything aboveground.
Infection may also first appear on leaves and work its way elsewhere on the plant. Foliar infections start out as light brown spots. Once the fungi start reproducing, you will be able to see tiny black, raised dots within these brown spots. These black dots will appear in circles of their own.
Stem lesions can cause the plant to fall over. Pod lesions reduce seed production and can cause seed shrinkage and discoloration.
Ascochyta blight lifecycle
In California, garbanzo beans are generally planted in November. This sets them up for Ascochyta blight because the spores grow best in cool, damp weather. Temperatures between 68°F and 77°F are ideal for this disease to develop. There are different forms of this fungi. One form is airborne, while the other is spread by rain and irrigation water. When these two forms meet under optimal conditions, the disease begins.
Ascochyta blight management
Ascochyta blight can be spread by infected seeds, so always start your garbanzo bean crop with certified disease-free seeds. Do not use that bag of garbanzo beans from the grocery store. The price might be appealing and those seeds are safe to eat, but they may also carry any number of pests and diseases that might take years to get rid of. You can also select disease resistant varieties. According to UCANR, the following varieties of garbanzo are currently resistant to Ascochyta blight: Sierra, Dylan, Sutter, San Joaquin, and the Airway Farms (AWF) series. That resistance can and will change because fungi evolve faster than plants.
At the first sign of infection, the affected plant should be removed and tossed in the trash. You don’t want to leave infected plant material in the garden or compost pile because this can simply spread the disease to more plants.
Ascochyta blight does not survive in the soil, so crop rotation is a good way to break the disease cycle.
If Ascochyta blight has been a serious problem in past years, space plants out more for better air flow, and plant seeds as late in the season as possible.
Fungicides can be used at the first sign of disease and reapplied according to package directions.
The warm heat of curry dishes can all be grown in your garden. Curry plants, however, are often mislabeled and misunderstood. Before we really dig in, what does the word curry actually mean?
We think we know what curry means. The dictionary tells us that curry is “a dish of meat, vegetables, etc., cooked in an Indian-style sauce of strong spices and turmeric and typically served with rice.” But curry is more of a colonial grab bag name for a wide variety of regional dishes that can be prepared with a complex assortment of herbs, spices, and other flavorings, depending on the region of origin. These ingredients may or may not include:
And curry leaves. There are two distinctly different plants sold as “curry plants”. One is the real deal. The other is not.
Fake curry plants
Helichrysum italicum, sometimes listed as H. angustifolium, is a pale green European herb with yellow flowers that grows well in dry, rocky soil. This plant smells a lot like curry, hence the name, but it does not taste like curry. Also known as Italian strawflower and immortelle, young shoots are sometimes used in Mediterranean dishes for their bitter, sage-like flavor, and never in curry.
True curry plants
True curry plants are trees. The curry leaf tree (Murraya koenigii) is a member of the rue family, along with citrus. Being tropical to subtropical, curry leaf trees grow best in Hardiness Zones 9 - 12. They are very sensitive to frost damage. They can grow from 6 to 15 feet tall and 4 to 12 feet wide. There are three types of curry leaf tree: regular, dwarf, and gamthi. Dwarf trees are shorter and wider than regular trees and the leaves are narrower. Gamthi varieties grow very slowly and they produce thicker leaves with the strongest aroma.
Curry leaf trees will produce berries that will open up into fragrant white flowers. You can increase leaf production by removing those berries before they open.
How to grow curry leaf
Curry leaf plants can be started from seeds, suckers, or stem cuttings. Only fresh, ripe berries contain viable seeds and the husk must be removed before planting. The seeds contained in dried berries will not germinate.
Containerized curry trees
Curry leaf trees can be grown in containers, as long as they have nutrient-rich potting soil and good drainage. They need to be moved to slightly larger containers every few years. By the time your curry tree is 10 years old and at its mature size, it should be in a 30-gallon container.
Caring for curry trees
These trees prefer full sunlight but can grow in partial shade. Scorching summer sunlight can sunburn the leaves. If grown indoors, grow lights may be needed. If grown outdoors, your curry leaf tree will need to be brought indoors in winter if you live in Hardiness Zones 1-8. It will also need protection from wind. In either case, be sure to allow the soil to dry out completely between waterings to avoid root rot.
Curry trees should be fertilized once a month, March through October. Also, curry trees use a lot of iron, so iron sulfate should be added every other month, or so.
Curry tree pests and diseases
Mites and scale insects are the two most common pests of curry trees, along with aphids and citrus mealybugs. Asian citrus psyllids may also be present and this poses a serious problem. Asian citrus psyllids can carry a fatal disease called huanglongbing. Infected trees must be destroyed. Before accepting curry tree seeds or cuttings, make sure they are not from a quarantine zone. Leaf spot is another disease that may occur in curry leaf trees.
If you love curry, starting your own curry leaf tree is one way to enjoy the very freshest ingredients.
Stink bugs have shield-shaped bodies and most of them are plant pests. The rough stink bug, however, occasionally eats pests!
As true bugs, rough stink bugs (Brochymena sulcata) are cousin to aphids, leafhoppers, and scale insects. There are several different subspecies of rough stinkbug and none of them are 100% beneficial.
Rough stink bug identification
Their classic stink bug shield-shaped body is rather flattened and a bumpy mottled gray and black. This coloration makes them blend in well with bark. They average 1/2” to slightly more than 3/4” in length.
Do not confuse rough stink bugs with brown marmorated stink bugs (Halyomorpha halys.) or consperse stink bugs (Euschistus conspersus). Brown marmorated stink bugs pose a serious threat to gardens and orchards. They have white bands on their antennae and legs, the front of the head is more blunt than other species, and the thorax is smooth. Consperse stink bugs have no banding on the antennae, but dark spots on the legs, the thorax is smooth but somewhat convex, and this species is smaller than others.
Rough stink bug diet
Like other stink bugs, a rough’s favorite foods are plant-based. While other species prefer fruits and vegetables, the rough stink bug diet is predominantly the leaves and developing seeds of ash, boxelder, walnut, willow, and many other trees. The thing that makes the rough stink bug beneficial is that they also feed on caterpillars and leaf beetle larvae.
Rough stink bug lifecycle
Rough stink bugs spend their winters hidden under logs or the bark of trees. They may also try to get in your home. If they do, keep in mind that their name is an important clue. If you vacuum them up or squash them in your home, there will be consequences. Stinky ones. Instead, sweep them up with a dustpan and drop them into a container of soapy water or feed them to your chickens.
As spring temperatures rise, rough stink bugs become active again and start looking for a mate. Mated females lay clusters of 10 to 20 white, elongated eggs before they die. Two weeks later, the eggs hatch and pale colored nymphs emerge and begin feeding. There is one generation per year in most regions.
In most cases, getting rid of stink bugs is a good idea. The rough stink bug is an exception.
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