Every rose has its thorns, right? Well, no. They don’t.
Roses do not have thorns. Roses have prickles. Citrus trees have thorns.
Thorns, prickles, and other spiky bits
Thorns are a type of spinose structure made out of a modified leaf, stem, root, or bud. Many people use the terms bristles, prickles, spines, and thorns interchangeably. Botanically, these terms mean very different things:
So, where bristles are stiff hairs and prickles are hard, spiked skin (neither of which contain plant veins), spines, being modified leaves, and thorns, modified stems, do contain plant veins.
Plants use thorns as a mechanical defense against herbivores (and gardeners). Cacti are far less likely to be eaten when they are covered with hard thorns. And the pollinators who specialize in pollinating these particular types of plants seem to be unaffected by the presence of thorns. In some cases, thorns are also used to shade certain plant varieties, or to provide a layer of insulation.
Home, sweet thorn
Some thorns are hollow. These tiny chambers are called domatia. Plants, such as certain acacia species, produce domatium to provide shelter for beneficial arthropods (insects, spiders, and crustaceans). Similar to galls, which are produced by the resident, rather than the landlord, domatium are the plant’s side of a mutually beneficial relationship, most commonly with ants or mites. Occasionally, thrips may also move into these tiny apartments, but they are generally unhelpful to the plant. The plants that create these thorny thresholds are called myrmecophytes.
While I do not expect any of you to stop calling rose prickles thorns, why not impress your friends with your new-found knowledge?
You can grow a surprising amount of food in your own yard. Ask me how!
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